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I'm amazed at how fast your blog loaded on my phone.. Its like you read my thoughts! You seem to understand a lot approximately this, like you wrote the e book in it or something. Later receiving the support of the independent South German states in the Confederation's defeat of France, he formed the German Empire in , unifying Germany with himself as Imperial Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia at the same time.
The new German nation excluded Austria , which had been Prussia's main opponent for predominance among the German states. With that accomplished by , he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm , it was Bismarck who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after , [and] devoted himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers".
Bismarck's diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy. He disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an overseas empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion.
Juggling a very complex interlocking series of conferences, negotiations and alliances, he used his diplomatic skills to maintain Germany's position and used the balance of power to keep Europe at peace in the s and s.
A master of complex politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world, with the goal of gaining working class support that might otherwise go to his Socialist enemies. He lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats.
Bismarck then reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf , broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, and formed a political alliance with the Centre Party to fight the Socialists. A devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir.
While the Reichstag , Germany's parliament, was elected by universal male suffrage, it did not have much control of government policy. Bismarck distrusted democracy and ruled through a strong, well-trained bureaucracy with power in the hands of a traditional Junker elite that consisted of the landed nobility in eastern Prussia.
Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck largely controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in , at the age of seventy-five. Bismarck — a Junker himself — was strong-willed, outspoken and overbearing, but he could also be polite, charming and witty. Occasionally he displayed a violent temper, and he kept his power by melodramatically threatening resignation time and again, which cowed Wilhelm I.
He possessed not only a long-term national and international vision but also the short-term ability to juggle complex developments. As the leader of what historians call " revolutionary conservatism ",  Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists ; they built many monuments honoring the founder of the new Reich.
Many historians praise him as a visionary who was instrumental in uniting Germany and, once that had been accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. He played his parts with perfect self-confidence, yet mixed them with rage, anxiety, illness, hypochrondria, and irrationality. He used democracy when it suited him, negotiated with revolutionaries and the dangerous Ferdinand Lassalle , the socialist who might have contested his authority.
He utterly dominated his cabinet ministers with a sovereign contempt and blackened their reputations as soon as he no longer needed them. He outwitted the parliamentary parties, even the strongest of them, and betrayed all those By even his closest friends His father, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck — , was a Junker estate owner and a former Prussian military officer; his mother, Wilhelmine Luise Mencken — , was the well educated daughter of a senior government official in Berlin.
He had two siblings, Bernhard — and Malwine — The world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well educated and cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamann 's elementary school,  and the Friedrich-Wilhelm and Graues Kloster secondary schools. In , while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald , he studied agriculture at the University of Greifswald.
Motley, who later became an eminent historian and diplomat while remaining close to Bismarck, wrote a novel in , Morton's Hope, or the Memoirs of a Provincial , about life in a German university.
In it he described Bismarck as a reckless and dashing eccentric, but also as an extremely gifted and charming young man. Although Bismarck hoped to become a diplomat, he started his practical training as a lawyer in Aachen and Potsdam , and soon resigned, having first placed his career in jeopardy by taking unauthorized leave to pursue two English girls; first Laura Russell, niece of the Duke of Cleveland , and then Isabella Loraine-Smith, daughter of a wealthy clergyman.
Around age thirty, Bismarck formed an intense friendship with Marie von Thadden, newly married to one of his friends. Under her influence, Bismarck became a Pietist Lutheran, and later recorded that at Marie's deathbed from typhoid he prayed for the first time since his childhood. Their long and happy marriage produced three children: Johanna was a shy, retiring and deeply religious woman—although famed for her sharp tongue in later life—and in his public life, Bismarck was sometimes accompanied by his sister Malwine "Malle" von Arnim.
Bismarck soon adopted his wife's pietism, and he remained a devout Pietist Lutheran for the rest of his life. In Bismarck, aged thirty-two, was chosen as a representative to the newly created Prussian legislature, the Vereinigter Landtag.
There, he gained a reputation as a royalist and reactionary politician with a gift for stinging rhetoric; he openly advocated the idea that the monarch had a divine right to rule. His selection was arranged by the Gerlach brothers, fellow Pietist Lutherans whose ultra-conservative faction was known as the "Kreuzzeitung" after their newspaper, the Neue Preussische Zeitung , which was so nicknamed because it featured an Iron Cross on its cover. The monarch, though initially inclined to use armed forces to suppress the rebellion, ultimately declined to leave Berlin for the safety of military headquarters at Potsdam.
Bismarck later recorded that there had been a "rattling of sabres in their scabbards" from Prussian officers when they learned that the King would not suppress the revolution by force. He offered numerous concessions to the liberals: Bismarck had at first tried to rouse the peasants of his estate into an army to march on Berlin in the King's name.
Augusta would have none of it, and detested Bismarck thereafter,  despite the fact that he later helped restore a working relationship between the King and his brother Wilhelm. Bismarck was not yet a member of the Landtag , the lower house of the new Prussian legislature. The liberal movement perished by the end of amid internal fighting. Meanwhile, the conservatives regrouped, formed an inner group of advisers—including the Gerlach brothers, known as the " Camarilla "—around the King, and retook control of Berlin.
Although a constitution was granted, its provisions fell far short of the demands of the revolutionaries. In , Bismarck was elected to the Landtag. At this stage in his career, he opposed the unification of Germany , arguing that Prussia would lose its independence in the process. He accepted his appointment as one of Prussia's representatives at the Erfurt Parliament, an assembly of German states that met to discuss plans for union, but he only did so to oppose that body's proposals more effectively.
The parliament failed to bring about unification, for it lacked the support of the two most important German states, Prussia and Austria. Bismarck gave up his elected seat in the Landtag , but was appointed to the Prussian House of Lords a few years later. In Frankfurt he engaged in a battle of wills with the Austrian representative Count Friedrich von Thun und Hohenstein , insisting on being treated as an equal by petty tactics such as imitating Thun when Thun claimed the privileges of smoking and removing his jacket in meetings.
Bismarck's eight years in Frankfurt were marked by changes in his political opinions, detailed in the numerous lengthy memoranda, which he sent to his ministerial superiors in Berlin. No longer under the influence of his ultraconservative Prussian friends, Bismarck became less reactionary and more pragmatic. He became convinced that to countervail Austria's newly restored influence, Prussia would have to ally herself with other German states.
As a result, he grew to be more accepting of the notion of a united German nation. He gradually came to believe that he and his fellow conservatives had to take the lead in the drive toward creating a unified nation in order to keep from being eclipsed. He also believed that the middle-class liberals wanted a unified Germany more than they wanted to break the grip of the traditional forces over society.
Bismarck also worked to maintain the friendship of Russia and a working relationship with Napoleon III 's France, the latter being anathema to his conservative friends, the Gerlachs,  but necessary both to threaten Austria and to prevent France allying itself to Russia. In a famous letter to Leopold von Gerlach, Bismarck wrote that it was foolish to play chess having first put 16 of the 64 squares out of bounds.
This observation became ironic, as after , France indeed became Germany's permanent enemy , and eventually allied with Russia against Germany in the s. Bismarck was alarmed by Prussia's isolation during the Crimean War of the mids, in which Austria sided with Britain and France against Russia; Prussia was almost not invited to the peace talks in Paris.
In the Eastern Crisis of the s, fear of a repetition of this turn of events would later be a factor in Bismarck's signing the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in Wilhelm was initially seen as a moderate ruler, whose friendship with liberal Britain was symbolised by the recent marriage of his son Frederick William to Queen Victoria 's eldest daughter. As part of his "New Course", Wilhelm brought in new ministers, moderate conservatives known as the Wochenblatt after their newspaper.
In theory, this was a promotion, as Russia was one of Prussia's two most powerful neighbors. But Bismarck was sidelined from events in Germany and could only watch impotently as France drove Austria out of Lombardy during the Italian War of Bismarck proposed that Prussia should exploit Austria's weakness to move her frontiers "as far south as Lake Constance " on the Swiss border; instead, Prussia mobilised troops in the Rhineland to deter further French advances into Venetia.
As a further snub, the Regent, who scorned Bismarck as a Landwehrleutnant reserve lieutenant , had declined to promote him to the rank of major-general, a rank that the ambassador to St Petersburg was expected to hold.
This was an important refusal as Prussia and Russia were close military allies, whose heads of state often communicated through military contacts rather than diplomatic channels. Bismarck stayed in St Petersburg for four years, during which he almost lost his leg to botched medical treatment and once again met his future adversary, the Russian Prince Gorchakov , who had been the Russian representative in Frankfurt in the early s.
Over the next twelve years, Bismarck, Moltke and Roon transformed Prussia; Bismarck would later refer to this period as "the most significant of my life". Despite his lengthy stay abroad, Bismarck was not entirely detached from German domestic affairs. He remained well-informed due to Roon, with whom Bismarck formed a lasting friendship and political alliance. In May , he was sent to Paris to serve as ambassador to France, and also visited England that summer. These visits enabled him to meet and take the measure of several adversaries: Disraeli, who would become Prime Minister in the s, later claimed to have said of Bismarck, "Be careful of that man—he means every word he says".
The new monarch often came into conflict with the increasingly liberal Prussian Diet Landtag. A crisis arose in , when the Diet refused to authorize funding for a proposed re-organization of the army. The King's ministers could not convince legislators to pass the budget, and the King was unwilling to make concessions. Wilhelm threatened to abdicate in favour of his son Crown Prince Frederick William , who opposed his doing so, believing that Bismarck was the only politician capable of handling the crisis.
However, Wilhelm was ambivalent about appointing a person who demanded unfettered control over foreign affairs. It was in September , when the Abgeordnetenhaus House of Deputies overwhelmingly rejected the proposed budget, that Wilhelm was persuaded to recall Bismarck to Prussia on the advice of Roon. In the midst of this disarray, the European balance of power was restructured with the creation of the German Empire as the dominant power in continental Europe apart from Russia.
This was achieved by Bismarck's diplomacy, Roon's reorganization of the army and Moltke's military strategy. Despite the initial distrust of the King and Crown Prince and the loathing of Queen Augusta, Bismarck soon acquired a powerful hold over the King by force of personality and powers of persuasion. Bismarck was intent on maintaining royal supremacy by ending the budget deadlock in the King's favour, even if he had to use extralegal means to do so.
Under the Constitution, the budget could be passed only after the king and legislature agreed on its terms. Bismarck contended that since the Constitution did not provide for cases in which legislators failed to approve a budget, there was a "legal loophole " in the Constitution and so he could apply the previous year's budget to keep the government running.
Thus, on the basis of the budget, tax collection continued for four years. Bismarck's conflict with the legislators intensified in the coming years. Following the Alvensleben Convention of , the House of Deputies resolved that it could no longer come to terms with Bismarck; in response, the King dissolved the Diet, accusing it of trying to obtain unconstitutional control over the ministry—which, under the Constitution, was responsible solely to the king.
Bismarck then issued an edict restricting the freedom of the press, an edict that even gained the public opposition of the Crown Prince. Despite or perhaps because of his attempts to silence critics, Bismarck remained a largely unpopular politician.
His supporters fared poorly in the elections of October , in which a liberal coalition, whose primary member was the Progress Party , won over two-thirds of the seats. The House made repeated calls for Bismarck to be dismissed, but the King supported him, fearing that if he did dismiss the Minister President, he would most likely be succeeded by a liberal. German unification had been a major objective of the revolutions of , when representatives of the German states met in Frankfurt and drafted a constitution, creating a federal union with a national parliament to be elected by universal male suffrage.
Fearing the opposition of the other German princes and the military intervention of Austria and Russia, the King renounced this popular mandate. Thus, the Frankfurt Parliament ended in failure for the German liberals. On 30 September , Bismarck made a famous speech to the Budget Committee of the Prussian Chamber of Deputies in which he expounded on the use of " iron and blood " to achieve Prussia's goals:. Prussia must concentrate and maintain its power for the favorable moment which has already slipped by several times.
Prussia's boundaries according to the Vienna treaties are not favorable to a healthy state life. The great questions of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions — that was the great mistake of and — but by iron and blood.
Prior to the s, Germany consisted of a multitude of principalities loosely bound together as members of the German Confederation. Bismarck used both diplomacy and the Prussian military to achieve unification, excluding Austria from a unified Germany. This made Prussia the most powerful and dominant component of the new Germany but also ensured that it remained authoritarian, rather than a liberal parliamentary regime.
Prussian public opinion strongly favoured Augustenburg's claim, as the populations of Holstein and southern Schleswig were primarily German-speaking. Bismarck took an unpopular step by insisting that the territories legally belonged to the Danish monarch under the London Protocol signed a decade earlier. Nonetheless, Bismarck denounced Christian's decision to completely annex Schleswig to Denmark.
With support from Austria, he issued an ultimatum for Christian IX to return Schleswig to its former status. Denmark was ultimately forced to renounce its claim on both duchies. At first this seemed like a victory for Augustenburg, but Bismarck soon removed him from power by making a series of unworkable demands, namely that Prussia should have control over the army and navy of the duchies. Originally, it had been proposed that the Diet of the German Confederation, in which all the states of Germany were represented, should determine the fate of the duchies; but before this scheme could be effected, Bismarck induced Austria to agree to the Gastein Convention.
Under this agreement signed 20 August , Prussia received Schleswig, while Austria received Holstein. In , Austria reneged on the agreement and demanded that the Diet determine the Schleswig—Holstein issue. Bismarck used this as an excuse to start a war with Austria by accusing them of violating the Gastein Convention. Bismarck sent Prussian troops to occupy Holstein. Provoked, Austria called for the aid of other German states, who quickly became involved in the Austro-Prussian War.
With the strategic genius of Moltke, the Prussian army fought battles it was able to win. Bismarck had also made a secret alliance with Italy, who desired Austrian-controlled Veneto. Italy's entry into the war forced the Austrians to divide their forces. Meanwhile, as the war began, a German radical named Ferdinand Cohen-Blind attempted to assassinate Bismarck in Berlin, shooting him five times at close range.
Bismarck had only minor injuries. Subsequently, Cohen-Blind committed suicide while in custody. The war lasted seven weeks; Germans called it a Blitzkrieg "lightning war" , a term also used in Bismarck insisted on a "soft peace" with no annexations and no victory parades, so as to be able to quickly restore friendly relations with Austria.
As a result of the Peace of Prague , the German Confederation was dissolved. Furthermore, Austria had to promise not to intervene in German affairs. To solidify Prussian hegemony, Prussia forced the 21 states north of the River Main to join it in forming the North German Confederation in The confederation was governed by a constitution largely drafted by Bismarck.
Executive power was vested in a president, an hereditary office of the kings of Prussia, who was assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him.
As president of the confederation, Wilhelm appointed Bismarck as chancellor of the confederation. Legislation was the responsibility of the Reichstag , a popularly elected body, and the Bundesrat , an advisory body representing the states. The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber. Bismarck was the dominant figure in the new arrangement; as Foreign Minister of Prussia, he instructed the Prussian deputies to the Bundesrat. Prussia had only a plurality 17 out of 43 seats in the Bundesrat despite being larger than the other 21 states combined, but Bismarck could easily control the proceedings through alliances with the smaller states.
This began what historians refer to as "The Misery of Austria" in which Austria served as a mere vassal to the superior Germany, a relationship that was to shape history until the end of the First World War. Bismarck had originally managed to convince smaller states like Saxony, Hesse-Kassel, and Hanover to join with Prussia against Austria, after promising them protection from foreign invasion and fair commercial laws.
Bismarck, who by now held the rank of major in the Landwehr, wore this uniform during the campaign and was at last promoted to the rank of major-general in the Landwehr cavalry after the war. Although he never personally commanded troops in the field, he usually wore a general's uniform in public for the rest of his life, as seen in numerous paintings and photographs.
He was also given a cash grant by the Prussian Landtag, which he used to purchase a country estate in Varzin , now part of Poland. Military success brought Bismarck tremendous political support in Prussia. In the elections of the liberals suffered a major defeat, losing their majority in the House of Deputies.
The new, largely conservative House was on much better terms with Bismarck than previous bodies; at the Minister President's request, it retroactively approved the budgets of the past four years, which had been implemented without parliamentary consent. Bismarck suspected it would split the liberal opposition. While some liberals argued that constitutional government was a bright line that should not be crossed, most of them believed it would be a waste of time to oppose the bill, and supported it in hopes of winning more freedom in the future.
Jonathan Steinberg says of Bismarck's achievements to this point:. The scale of Bismarck's triumph cannot be exaggerated. He alone had brought about a complete transformation of the European international order. He had told those who would listen what he intended to do, how he intended to do it, and he did it.
He achieved this incredible feat without commanding an army, and without the ability to give an order to the humblest common soldier, without control of a large party, without public support, indeed, in the face of almost universal hostility, without a majority in parliament, without control of his cabinet, and without a loyal following in the bureaucracy.
He no longer had the support of the powerful conservative interest groups who had helped him achieve power. The most senior diplomats in the foreign service The Queen and the Royal Family hated him and the King, emotional and unreliable, would soon have his 70th birthday.
With perfect justice, in August , he punched his fist on his desk and cried "I have beaten them all! Prussia's victory over Austria increased the already existing tensions with France. The Emperor of France, Napoleon III , had tried to gain territory for France in Belgium and on the left bank of the Rhine as a compensation for not joining the war against Prussia and was disappointed by the surprisingly quick outcome of the war.
Bismarck, at the same time, did not avoid war with France, though he feared the French for a number of reasons. First, he feared that Austria, hungry for revenge, would ally with the French. Similarly, he feared that the Russian army would assist France to maintain a balance of power.
France never achieved any such gain, but it was made to look greedy and untrustworthy. A suitable pretext for war arose in , when the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was offered the Spanish throne, vacant since a revolution in France pressured Leopold into withdrawing his candidacy.
Not content with this, Paris demanded that Wilhelm, as head of the House of Hohenzollern, assure that no Hohenzollern would ever seek the Spanish crown again. To provoke France into declaring war with Prussia, Bismarck published the Ems Dispatch , a carefully edited version of a conversation between King Wilhelm and the French ambassador to Prussia, Count Benedetti. This conversation had been edited so that each nation felt that its ambassador had been slighted and ridiculed, thus inflaming popular sentiment on both sides in favor of war.
Langer, however, argues that this episode played a minor role in causing the war. Bismarck wrote in his Memoirs that he "had no doubt that a Franco-German war must take place before the construction of a united Germany could be realised. France mobilized and declared war on 19 July. The German states saw France as the aggressor, and—swept up by nationalism and patriotic zeal—they rallied to Prussia's side and provided troops. Both of Bismarck's sons served as officers in the Prussian cavalry.
The war was a great success for Prussia as the German army, controlled by Chief of Staff Moltke, won victory after victory. The major battles were all fought in one month 7 August to 1 September , and both French armies were captured at Sedan and Metz , the latter after a siege of some weeks. Napoleon III was taken prisoner at Sedan and kept in Germany for a time in case Bismarck had need of him to head the French regime; he later died in exile in England in The remainder of the war featured a siege of Paris , the city was "ineffectually bombarded";  the new French republican regime then tried, without success, to relieve Paris with various hastily assembled armies and increasingly bitter partisan warfare.
Bismarck sang " La Marseillaise " when recording his voice on an Edison phonograph in A biographer stated that he did so, 19 years after the war, to mock the French. Bismarck acted immediately to secure the unification of Germany.
He negotiated with representatives of the southern German states, offering special concessions if they agreed to unification. The negotiations succeeded; patriotic sentiment overwhelmed what opposition remained.
The King of Prussia, as German Emperor, was not sovereign over the entirety of Germany; he was only primus inter pares , or first among equals. However, he held the presidency of the Bundesrat , which met to discuss policy presented by the Chancellor, whom the emperor appointed.
In the end, France had to cede Alsace and part of Lorraine , as Moltke and his generals wanted it as a buffer. Historians debate whether Bismarck wanted this annexation or was forced into it by a wave of German public and elite opinion. Historians debate whether Bismarck had a master plan to expand the North German Confederation of to include the remaining independent German states into a single entity or simply to expand the power of the Kingdom of Prussia.
They conclude that factors in addition to the strength of Bismarck's Realpolitik led a collection of early modern polities to reorganize political, economic, military, and diplomatic relationships in the 19th century. Reaction to Danish and French nationalism provided foci for expressions of German unity. Military successes—especially those of Prussia—in three regional wars generated enthusiasm and pride that politicians could harness to promote unification.
This experience echoed the memory of mutual accomplishment in the Napoleonic Wars, particularly in the War of Liberation of — By establishing a Germany without Austria, the political and administrative unification in at least temporarily solved the problem of dualism.
Jonathan Steinberg said of Bismarck's creation of the German Empire that:. The genius-statesmen had transformed European politics and had unified Germany in eight and a half years.
And he had done so by sheer force of personality, by his brilliance, ruthlessness, and flexibility of principle. He had achieved the impossible, and his genius and the cult of genius had no limits. When he returned to Berlin in March , he had become immortal He was also appointed as the first Imperial Chancellor Reichskanzler of the German Empire, but retained his Prussian offices, including those of Minister-President and Foreign Minister.
He was also promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and bought a former hotel in Friedrichsruh near Hamburg, which became an estate. He also continued to serve as his own foreign minister. Because of both the imperial and the Prussian offices that he held, Bismarck had near complete control over domestic and foreign policy.
The office of Minister President of Prussia was temporarily separated from that of Chancellor in , when Albrecht von Roon was appointed to the former office.
But by the end of the year, Roon resigned due to ill health, and Bismarck again became Minister-President. Bismarck launched an anti-Catholic Kulturkampf "culture struggle" in Prussia in This was partly motivated by Bismarck's fear that Pius IX and his successors would use papal infallibility to achieve the "papal desire for international political hegemony The result was the Kulturkampf, which, with its largely Prussian measures, complemented by similar actions in several other German states, sought to curb the clerical danger by legislation restricting the Catholic church's political power.
The goal was to end the pope's control over the bishops in a given state, but the project went nowhere. Bismarck accelerated the Kulturkampf. In its course, all Prussian bishops and many priests were imprisoned or exiled.
Bismarck believed that the pope and bishops held too much power over the German Catholics and was further concerned about the emergence of the Catholic Centre Party , organised in With support from the anticlerical National Liberal Party , which had become Bismarck's chief ally in the Reichstag, he abolished the Catholic Department of the Prussian Ministry of Culture. That left the Catholics without a voice in high circles. Moreover, in , the Jesuits were expelled from Germany. More anti-Catholic laws of allowed the Prussian government to supervise the education of the Roman Catholic clergy and curtailed the disciplinary powers of the Church.
In , civil ceremonies were required for civil weddings. Hitherto, weddings in churches were civilly recognized. Kulturkampf became part of Bismarck's foreign-policy, as he sought to destabilize and weaken Catholic regimes, especially in Belgium and France, but he had little success.
The British ambassador Odo Russell reported to London in October that Bismarck's plans were backfiring by strengthening the ultramontane pro-papal position inside German Catholicism: The Catholics reacted by organizing themselves and strengthening the Centre Party. Bismarck, a devout pietistic Protestant, was alarmed that secularists and socialists were using the Kulturkampf to attack all religion.
He abandoned it in to preserve his remaining political capital since he now needed the Centre Party votes in his new battle against socialism.
The Pope kept control of the selection of bishops, and Catholics for the most part supported unification and most of Bismarck's policies.
However, they never forgot his culture war and preached solidarity to present organized resistance should it ever be resumed. The anti-Catholic hysteria in many European countries belongs in its European setting.
Bismarck's campaign was not unique in itself, but his violent temper, intolerance of opposition, and paranoia that secret forces had conspired to undermine his life's work, made it more relentless. His rage drove him to exaggerate the threat from Catholic activities and to respond with very extreme measures.
The bully, the dictator, and the "demonic" combined in him with the self-pity and the hypochondria to create a constant crisis of authority, which he exploited for his own ends. Opponents, friends, and subordinates all remarked on Bismarck as "demonic," a kind of uncanny, diabolic personal power over men and affairs. In these years of his greatest power, he believed that he could do anything.
A downturn hit the German economy for the first time since industrial development began to surge in the s. To aid faltering industries, the Chancellor abandoned free trade and established protectionist import-tariffs, which alienated the National Liberals who demanded free trade. The Kulturkampf and its effects had also stirred up public opinion against the party that supported it, and Bismarck used this opportunity to distance himself from the National Liberals.
That marked a rapid decline in the support of the National Liberals, and by their close ties with Bismarck had all but ended. Bismarck instead returned to conservative factions, including the Centre Party, for support. He helped foster support from the conservatives by enacting several tariffs protecting German agriculture and industry from foreign competitors in Imperial and provincial government bureaucracies attempted to Germanise the state's national minorities situated near the borders of the empire: Worried by the growth of the socialist movement, the Social Democratic Party in particular, Bismarck instituted the Anti-Socialist Laws in Socialist organizations and meetings were forbidden, as was the circulation of socialist literature.
Police officers could stop, search and arrest socialist party members and their leaders, a number of whom were then tried by police courts. Despite these efforts, the socialist movement steadily gained supporters and seats in the Reichstag.
Socialists won seats in the Reichstag by running as independent candidates, unaffiliated with any party, which was allowed by the German constitution. Bismarck's strategy in the 's was to win the workers over for the conservative regime by implementing social benefits. He added accident and old-age insurance as well as a form of socialized medicine.
He did not completely succeed, however. Support for the Social Democrats increased with each election. Having unified his nation, Bismarck now devoted himself to promoting peace in Europe with his skills in statesmanship.
He was forced to contend with French revanchism , the desire to avenge the losses of the Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck, therefore, engaged in a policy of diplomatically isolating France while maintaining cordial relations with other nations in Europe. He had little interest in naval or colonial entanglements and thus avoided discord with Great Britain.
Historians emphasize that he wanted no more territorial gains after , and vigorously worked to form cross-linking alliances that prevented any war in Europe from starting. Taylor , a leading British diplomatic historian, concludes that, "Bismarck was an honest broker of peace; and his system of alliances compelled every Power, whatever its will, to follow a peaceful course.
Well aware that Europe was skeptical of his powerful new Reich, Bismarck turned his attention to preserving peace in Europe based on a balance of power that would allow Germany's economy to flourish. Bismarck feared that a hostile combination of Austria, France, and Russia would crush Germany. If two of them were allied, then the third would ally with Germany only if Germany conceded excessive demands. The solution was to ally with two of the three. Together they would control Eastern Europe, making sure that restive ethnic groups such as the Poles were kept under control.
The Balkans posed a more serious issue, and Bismarck's solution was to give Austria predominance in the western areas, and Russia in the eastern areas. This system collapsed in In , a protracted quarrel began to fester between Bismarck and Count Harry von Arnim , the imperial ambassador to France. Arnim saw himself as a rival and competitor for the chancellorship, but the rivalry escalated out of hand, and Arnim took sensitive records from embassy files at Paris to back up his case. He was formally accused of misappropriating official documents, indicted, tried and convicted, finally fleeing into exile where he died.
No one again openly challenged Bismarck in foreign policy matters until his resignation. Between and , according to Stone , Germany repeatedly manipulated the internal affairs of France's neighbors to hurt France. Bismarck put heavy pressure on Belgium, Spain, and Italy hoping to obtain the election of liberal, anticlerical governments. His plan was to promote republicanism in France by isolating the clerical-monarchist regime of President MacMahon.
He hoped that surrounding France with liberal states would help the French republicans defeat MacMahon and his reactionary supporters. The bullying, however, almost got out of hand in mid, when an editorial entitled " Krieg-in-Sicht " "War in Sight" was published in a Berlin newspaper close to the government, the Post. The editorial indicated that highly influential Germans were alarmed by France's rapid recovery from defeat in and its announcement of an increase in the size of its army, as well as talks of launching a preventive war against France.
Bismarck denied knowing about the article ahead of time, but he certainly knew about the talk of preventive war. The editorial produced a war scare, with Britain and Russia warning that they would not tolerate a preventive war against France.
Bismarck had no desire for war either, and the crisis soon blew over. It was a rare instance where Bismarck was outmaneuvered and embarrassed by his opponents, but from that he learned an important lesson.
It forced him to take into account the fear and alarm that his bullying and Germany's fast-growing power was causing among its neighbors, and reinforced his determination that Germany should work in proactive fashion to preserve the peace in Europe, rather than passively let events take their own course and reacting to them.
Bismarck maintained good relations with Italy , although he had a personal dislike for Italians and their country. Politics surrounding the Austro-Prussian War allowed Italy to annex Venetia , which had been a kronland "crown land" of the Austrian Empire since the Congress of Vienna.
Without these two events, Italian unification would have been a more prolonged process.
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