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Articles in everything from TV Guide to Playboy explain what is happening. We are told that several billion dollars of computer equipment will be purchased this year for use in offices, homes, and schools. Many articles imply, either directly or indirectly, that if we are not already computer literate we are behind. Ads in recent issues of Business Week tell the executive that Introducing the TRS Model 4 5 other executives have computers on their desks.

The ex- ecutive without one is thus at a disadvantage. An ad with a similar message appeared frequently dur- ing the Christmas season a few years ago. Sponsored by Radio Shack, the manufacturer of the Model 4, the mes- sage was that all good parents were buying their children home computers that year because the future belongs to kids who understand computers.

Such scare tactics are used in virtually every market today. Those who ignore computers, we are told, will be at a disadvantage in the near future. We feel this approach to creating interest in computers often has the wrong impact.

Don't buy a computer because other people are; buy one because you can see uses for it that interest you. With all the media coverage and the psychological pressure to keep up with neighbors and colleagues, most people approach computers with cautious interest mixed with apprehension and perhaps fear. We are filled with questions. Will I be able to learn how to use these new devices?

How will they change my work? Are they really worth the money for home use? How do I make an in- telligent decision about what to buy? Are they simply a fad that will pass, or are they a permanent part of our lives? Computers are a permanent part of our lives. They have changed the way we do things, and they will produce even more changes in the near future.

Only a few things have produced such revolutionary changes — events such as the industrial revolution, the invention of the auto- mobile, and the development of wireless communication technology. None of these changes were embraced with open arms by everyone. We like stability and are often un- comfortable with change, particularly rapid change. We need time to adjust, to become familiar with new things. Computer technology has not permitted us the luxury of time to accept it. Technology can move faster than we can.

And it has forced itself upon us as a brash, largely untried newcomer that competes for our attention, our dollars, and our affection. They edge their way onto our office desks, and show up on the workbench in the shop; they sit smugly on the desk in our classrooms, and they insist on a place of honor beside the television and the stereo in our homes.

Few inventions have come into our lives from so many directions at once. The history of computing has not helped most of us to accept computers. Early systems were gigantic, ex- pensive devices operated by highly-trained technicians who wanted to keep the secrets of the computer to them- selves. If we used computers before the advent of the personal computer, it was probably indirectly. Before personal computers, ordinary people like you and me did not talk directly to the computer.

Instead we told one of the experts what we needed the computer to do. Then the expert talked to the computer and let us know what it said.

This approach could be called the high priest approach to computers. As in ancient Greece, ordinary mortals did not converse directly with the gods. Instead, they talked to a priest who then talked to a god and passed on any reply to the ordinary mortal. Until recently the high priest approach was the only way most of us could interact with a computer.

Two developments that began in the sixties revolu- tionized the field of computers. These LSI circuits are the foundation of personal computers today. It would have been possible to build the TRS Model 4 computer in the fifties, but it would have been made of vacuum tubes, capacitors, resistors, and relays and would have filled a room at least thirty feet square and cost several million dollars. LSI technology alone could not have produced the current level of computer interest. Even small computers can be difficult to operate without extensive training.

In the eighties we are in the midst of another dramatic de- velopment: In the days before personal computers, most of the people who worked directly with a computer had exten- sive training.

Computers in those days were a lot like the early automobiles. The driver needed a good understanding of how the car operated, as well as an ability to diagnose problems and perform repairs. Early personal computers carried over this approach, with disastrous results. Personal computers are for people who, while perhaps highly trained in other fields, do not have extensive computer backgrounds.

The term "user- friendly" was coined to describe computers, programs, and manuals developed for this group of computer users. When the user- friendly revolution is complete, we will have small, inexpensive, powerful computers developed with you and me, the non-computer scientist, in mind. The TRS Model 4 is not a completely user-friendly computer, but it is a vast improvement over the first and second generation personal computers.

You can still find some cryptic passages in manuals, bugs in the programs that cause unexpected results, and programs that are dif- ficult to follow.

However, we are to a point where com- puters are useful, relatively friendly devices that let us have more fun, do more work, and become more efficient in the way we use our time. Before moving on to a discussion of the TRS Model 4 and its parts, we would like to discuss the type of computer user you may want to become. Many people think using a computer involves learning to write pro- grams for the machine.

That is one thing you can do, but well over eight-five percent of the people who use a personal computer never write a single program. Here are some categories of users: Program User If you are a program user, you learn how to run several programs that are useful. You'll know how to turn on Introducing the TRS Model 4 9 the machine, run the programs, and deal with minor prob- lems. It takes a few days of effort to become a good program user.

Informed User If you become an informed user, you will do all the program user does, but also learn more about the equip- ment available and what it will and will not do. You'll be able to select intelligently and set up a computer and its accessories. And you'll be able to choose appropriate programs to accomplish a job or have fun.

Becoming an informed user requires a few weeks of part-time effort plus some continuing reading for instance, computer magazines in areas of interest to keep current on new developments.

This book is written especially for people who want to become informed users. Adaptive User If you're an adaptive user, you can do all that the informed user can do. You'll also learn a bit about how to program a computer. You may not write complete programs, but you can modify or adapt many programs other people have written. If a program doesn't do quite what you want it to, you can change it. You may even be able to take care of routine maintenance and set-up tasks for instance, rewiring cable to connect a new printer to the computer.

Becoming an adaptive user takes sev- eral months of part-time effort, perhaps spread over a year or more. Adaptive users generally read quite a few books on personal computing and subscribe to a number of magazines. They become interested in a particular area, like word pro- cessing, video games, or accounting, or they become devoted owners of a particular brand or model of com- puter. These people spend a great deal of time keeping up with their own area of interest.

You will want to know several of these people because they are valuable re- sources. If you become a model or area expert, plan to make a considerable, and continuing, investment of time. You can program a computer in at least one language like BASIC or Pascal and can start with a blank piece of paper or a blank video display screen and end up with a complete program.

Becoming a hacker requires lots of time and an emotional attachment to computers that goes beyond viewing them as useful tools. Many hackers have gone on to full-time jobs in the computer industry. Several have become millionaires because the skills they have are in short supply. The opportunities for talented hackers is almost unlimited. Some have written video games that sold hundreds of thousands of copies; others have de- veloped business programs that became very popular.

Elitists in the personal computer field, particularly those whose training happens to be in computer science or engineering, tend to look down on people who are not programmers that is, hackers. But don't be intimidated by hackers who try to question your worthiness in the computer world. Wanting to use the computer for a par- ticular job or for playing games is perfectly acceptable. You don't have to fall in love with the thing or spend Introducing the TRS Model 4 1 1 most of your weekends slouched over a keyboard.

Select the level of use and involvement that fits your needs and go to it! Using a personal computer like the TRS Model 4 can take as little or as much of your time as you want. However, we feel that some under- standing of the Model 4 and its components is helpful, especially if you are thinking of buying accessories. That is, if you understand one of the languages the TRS Model 4 understands, you can develop a set of instructions for the computer.

When you tell the TRS Model 4 to execute the instructions you type in, it loads the electronic signals that represent your instructions into a special section of its memory and performs the operations associated with each instruction.

The programs you buy and use on the Model 4 are really sets of instructions written by programmers. Sets of instructions that do a particular job, such as play a fast game of blackjack, are called programs. The general term software is used to refer to computer programs. You can either write or purchase software, or computer programs. Store-bought software comes in several dif- ferent forms. Much of the video game software for the TRS Model 4 is available on cassette.

Cassette soft- ware is no more than the electronic codes that represent instructions recorded in much the same way music is recorded. The TRS Model 4 can listen, electronically speaking, to the signals on the cassette and convert the signals into instructions that are stored in memory.

If you buy a program that comes on a cassette, you must load the program into the memory of the computer through a cassette recorder, then tell the computer to execute those instructions.

Another way you can buy software is on a disk. Disks are flexible platters of coated mylar plastic enclosed in a protective envelope. Disks look a lot like 45 RPM records. The coating on these disks is magnetic. A special device called a disk drive can record or read information stored on the surface.

Introducing the TRS Model 4 13 If you learn to program the TRS Model 4, you can use a cassette recorder or disk drive to make a permanent copy of your programs for later use. A computer is tremendously versatile because it un- derstands and uses thousands of different programs. The computer is not at all prejudiced about what it does. If you write or buy a program that helps you keep an up- to-date list of your family possessions for insurance pur- poses, the computer will execute that program just as happily as it executes the instructions of your teenager's favorite video game program.

Software is what makes a computer versatile. Hard- ware, the nuts and bolts of the computer, is what most of us think of when we talk about computers. It converts the volt AC house current into direct current DC voltage.

Most of the internal circuits operate on 5 volts DC although some circuits have to have 12 volts DC. If a computer is to be of any use, it must be able to receive information and communicate back to you. The TRS- 80 Model 4 has several ports that allow you to com- municate with it.

The keyboard is your primary means of giving infor- mation and instructions to the computer. Each key has a unique signal or code that is sent to the com- puter. The Model 4 interprets the signals it gets from the keyboard as instructions to do something for example, pressing the CLEAR key deletes everything from the screen or as codes for a letter, number, or graphics symbol. The keyboard on the TRS Model 4 is a very good one, particularly compared with the keyboards on other computers in its price range.

It connects to the video monitor that is in the same case as the main computer circuit board. This computer displays 24 lines of text, each with up to 80 characters, on the screen.

The by format is a very good one for business and professional uses. The Model 4's biggest competitor, the Apple He, has a line by character display. How- ever, the Apple He has color and sound, while the Model 4 has neither. The Model 4 uses a monochrome black and white display and has only limited graphics features.

That makes it less satisfactory for video games. Most Model 4 buyers make business, professional, or home finance applications their first priority, rather than rec- reational uses like video games. The second means of output is a printer. All you need to do is buy a printer that uses a parallel interface, a special cable, and plug it in.

With a keyboard, a printer, and a video display you can communicate with your computer and it with you. You also need some way for the computer to commu- nicate with itself. For example, it sometimes needs to store data in a safe place and then retrieve it later. Com- Introducing the TRS Model 4 1 5 puter-to-computer communication is done with a cassette interface or with disk drives.

The computer can store data or programs on a cassette or disk and then retrieve it anytime you tell it to. If you haven't done so already, you may want to buy a cassette recorder or disk drives for your Model 4. Storing information on a cassette or disk is sometimes called mass storage.

Another form of computer-to-computer communication called telecom- munications is discussed in a later chapter. Memory When you press a key on the keyboard or load a pro- gram into the computer from a cassette or disk, you must have somewhere to put that information.

Each letter or number you type on the keyboard is converted to a code and stored in the memory of the computer. All computers convert characters into ones and zeros on and off elec- trical signals. The letter A, for example, has the code Such a set of eight digits is called a byte, and each of the ones and zeros is called a bit. Seven of those bits are used to define the code for each character the Model 4 understands.

The eighth is usually added to the character code so the computer can check for errors. This process, called parity checking, will not be discussed here. Bytes, the eight-bit patterns, are the fundamental code units for the Model 4 and for most small computers. Memory inside the computer is also divided into bytes. One byte of memory can hold the electrical impulses that represent eight ones and zeros.

Every letter, digit, graphic symbol, and punctuation mark the Model 4 understands has a unique code of one byte eight bits. This means there is not a place in the computer where an A or B or 7 or -I- is stored.

Instead, each of those symbols has its own one-byte code. There are actually two different types of memory in the Model 4: ROM stands for Read Only Memory, which is generally programmed at the factory and cannot be changed by the user. If you have a Model 4 with disk drives, the computer follows instructions in its ROM to load programs stored on disk.

All computer memory cannot be ROM, however. RAM is general-purpose memory, available for use by the computer operator. The standard Model 4 has a little over bytes of RAM. Since each byte can store the code for one character, the bytes of RAM can hold up to characters. That is quite a bit of RAM memory. Some of its competitors come with much less RAM memory, and the manufacturers generally charge a stiff price to add extra memory.

You can add a little over bytes of RAM to the Model 4, which means you have a maximum of over , bytes. RAM is also known as volatile memory. You can store data or instructions in RAM , tell the computer to use the information you've stored there, and then replace the material in RAM with something new. You can put data in RAM write to memory and you can see what is stored there read from memory. You can only read ROM. The biggest problem with RAM is the fact that whatever is there disappears when the computer is turned off.

If you need to save something in RAM for later use, you must Introducing the TRS Model 4 17 store it on a cassette or disk before turning the computer off. Material in ROM, on the other hand, remains there essentially forever and cannot be changed or modified. Thus far we've talked about the number of bytes of memory the Model 4 has.

Computer buffs generally do not talk about memory in terms of bytes, but in terms of Ks for kilobytes. Thus 16K would be times 16, or bytes. Just mul- tiply the number of K by 1 to determine the number of bytes of memory. Although most CPUs are smaller than a half dollar, the electronic components they contain would have filled a room a few decades ago. LSI technology permits manufacturers to cram thousands of circuits into tiny silicon chips that work dependably and use less power than an electric razor.

There are several popular CPU chips today with names like Z80, , , and There are real differences among these chips, but the differences are mainly of interest to computer designers, experienced programmers, and to people who need the special capabilities of some of the chips for example, the ability to use large amounts of memory or to work very rapidly. Because the Z80 has been on the market for several years, thousands of programs have been writ- ten for computers with Z80 CPUs.

But it does make the process of converting programs to operate on other computers easier. The Model 4 can carry its weight in the office, at home, and in the classroom. It is quite a bit of computing power for the money. You signed your life away to the finance company and brought home a TRS Model 4 computer with all the accessories.

You've astounded your friends and appeased your spouse, or tried to by demonstrating how it can analyze real estate investments, improve Junior's spelling, and store your favorite recipe for chocolate-covered cabbage. That's all well and good, but now that the friends have gone home and everyone except you is in bed, it's time to get down to business. Time to put your computer through its paces and use it for something really important: Computer magazines and soft- ware catalogs are filled to overflowing with ads for game software.

They're everywhere you go these days: Several home computers can run games strikingly similar to those ar- cade games. Some experienced gamers even prefer the better small computer games over the coin-operated ar- cade ones. There's good news and bad news about playing com- puter games on the Model 4. The good news is that you can have a lot of fun playing games on your computer.

The bad news is that the TRS Model 4 is not one of the computers that can compete with the quality of arcade games. The primary reason the Model 4 does not measure up to the Coleco Adam, the ATARI, or the Apple when it comes to video games is that the Model 4 was not de- signed primarily for recreational uses.

It can't produce very high-quality color pictures called graphics by pro- grammers. If you have ever played an arcade game, you know that much of the appeal lies in the use of colorful, imaginative graphics. The Model 4 can produce some graphics, but does not have a color display.

Not all com- puter games require color graphics, and you can certainly have a lot of fun playing games of all kinds on your Model 4. But if that's your primary reason for wanting a computer, the Model 4 is not your best choice. A Word of Caution We have not attempted to review every, or even most, of the games available for the Model 4.

There are too Games and Entertainment 21 many of them, and quite a few are so poor they don't deserve mention. It would take many pages to review all the bad recreational software for the Model 4, so we decided to use the space in this book to describe software we found at least acceptable, if not excellent.

Even with that limitation, we can't describe all the good software that is available. We've reviewed many of the good pro- grams to give you an idea of the types of games you can find for the Model 4. Because the Model 4 is a new computer, most of the software available when we wrote this book was created for the Model III.

These programs run on a Model 4 with no modification. By the time you read this, you may be able to buy versions written specifically to take advantage of the Model 4's new features. We came up with a system of categories but we have since found they're not as clear- cut as we originally thought.

As gaming gets more so- phisticated, the divisions between categories blur. Never- theless, we will discuss computer gaming on the TRS- 80 Model 4 computer in the following categories: Action Games Some of the most popular computer games are action games. Actually, there are several types of action games. Insiders in the computer industry sometimes refer to these games as bang-bang-shoot-' em- up games. That certainly sums it up! You spend your time zapping alien spaceships or blasting asteroids.

In other types of action games, you guide race cars around a track or play tennis or hockey. Without intricate color graphics, the Model 4 is less suited for action games than for some of the other categories. We'll review a few action games we think you'll enjoy, then go on to other games more suited to the Model 4.

It is set in the not-too-distant future; the world is at war but has realized nuclear conflict is impractical. Instead, con- ventional weapons are being used. You are in charge of a fleet of four Rotoblasters, flying craft you can maneuver up or down, right or left, with the arrow keys on your computer.

You use your Rotoblasters one at a time until each one is destroyed. You can aim and fire lasers at three Eastern Bloc Hovertanks. These ground-based craft are slow but deadly accurate as they track and fire at you. You aim your laser gun with the right and left arrow keys, arm the gun by pressing the space bar, and fire by releasing the space bar.

This is a somewhat unusual arrangement for firing and takes some getting used to, but that adds interest to the game. If one of your Rotoblasters is hit and it will be , you crash to the ground. There must have been a little bit of kamikaze in the programmer, because even as you fall crazily to the ground, you retain right-left control and can take out a Hovertank by crashing into it.

You can use a joystick instead of the arrow keys, and we definitely recommend the use of an audio amplifier, since the sound effects are really impressive in this game. A few programmers took advantage of the cassette circuits on the computer, however, and wrote sound effects instructions in their software. Plug a small speaker into the computer through one of the cassette recorder cables, and you'll get sounds in quadraphonic stereo that aren't bad.

The graphics in this program are better than average, and the game is fast with three skill levels. At the harder skill levels, the Hovertanks fire more quickly and more accurately. It is very much like the arcade game called Asteroids, but without color graphics or sound effects. If you're familiar with the Asteroids arcade game, you know the basic dilemma. Your ship is in a gigantic as- teroid field. To play the game, you move the ship or fire Games and Entertainment 25 your laser to avoid colliding with the moving asteroids.

You earn points by destroying asteroids, with the smaller asteroids worth more points than the larger ones. Just to make things a little more uncomfortable for you, while all this is going on, a variety of enemy space- ships try to shoot you; you have to get them first. You can control your ship by rotating it, firing its engines, or escaping to hyperspace, which should be your last resort: You may find yourself in a worse fix than before you went in!

The game gets more and more difficult as it goes on. Asteroids and enemy ships come faster and faster, and the enemy ships fire more and more shots at you. If you survive long enough to pile up a score of 90, or more, consider yourself an expert. If things get too tough, you can stop the action tem- porarily. Several other options include a super- fast and a super-slow action mode, and modes you can use to perfect your piloting and shooting skills.

The arcade ver- sion of this game has been a huge success with both children and adults and continues to attract quarters. The TRS version is fast and challenging, and the graphics are about as good as you can expect to find in a Model 4 action game. You'll be taking a chance with some games, but Planetoids is almost certain to be a hit with the whole family. Regilian Worm Regilian Worm is a good example of an action game that is a little different from the bang-bang-shoot-' em-up variety.

Shoot-'em-ups are fun, but you can blast only so many thousands of enemy fleets before terminal bore- dom begins to set in. It can be very fast, but doesn't use a single laser or guided missile. You use the arrow keys to guide the Regilian Worm around the screen so he can eat a crew of nasties known as Zansbards. As he eats each Zansbard, points mount up. The more the worm eats, the longer he grows and the harder it is to move him around the screen without running into a wall or touching his own tail.

When you do either of these things, you lose. This is a good action game with ten different speeds at each of four difficulty levels. This ensures a level for players of almost any age. As you get better, you can increase the difficulty level and keep the play challeng- ing. Regilian Worm is a welcome new wrinkle or wiggle in the world of action gaming.

Leaper Leaper is an action game similar to the popular arcade game called Frogger. In this game, you guide a frog through dangerous situations and try to reach one of six safe cubbyholes at the top of the screen.

When the game begins, you have three frogs. You must move the first one across a highway of speeding automobiles. If you make it, the next challenge is getting the frog across a river by jumping from lily pads to logs.

The only prob- lem is the lily pads may sink, or the logs may actually be hungry crocodiles. To make things a little more dif- ficult, you have only thirty seconds to guide each frog to safety.

Games and Entertainment 27 Once you get six frogs into the safe havens at the top of the screen, you earn a bonus frog and move up to the next level of difficulty. As you reach each new level, there are fewer lily pads, more crocodiles and faster and more numerous cars. Leaper is a good action game for your Model 4. It's inexpensive, interesting, and should keep your interest for quite a while as you move from easier to more difficult levels.

In this game you chase and punch a punching bag. The bag can appear at any position on the screen. You move around the screen by using the arrow keys. The game is really a test of how fast you react.

Boxer lacks the complex graphics and numerous skill levels you get from expensive commercial games written by experts. On the other hand, it's fun for a short while and it has the added attraction of being free.

Boxer is typical of the free games printed in computer magazines. There's a catch, though. Before you can play Boxer, you have to type in the entire program approx- imately lines.

This is time-consuming, and if you make errors, the game doesn't work right. Nevertheless, there is satisfaction in getting an enjoyable game for nothing, even if it takes some effort. If you aren't interested in typing in the program your- self, there is an alternative.

Several computer magazines sell cassette tapes or diskettes containing the major pro- grams listed in each issue. If you don't want to shell out that much money for programs you haven't seen.

Load 80 is available on cassette for all issues of 80 Micro from April , 1 98 1 to the present, and on diskette from March, to the present. Load 80 cassettes and diskettes are sold without man- uals or any kind of documentation. So you often need a copy of the 80 Micro issue that listed the program. When this chapter was written, back issues for most cop- ies since , as well as selected earlier back issues, were available.

Another computer magazine dealing exclusively with TRS computers is called Basic Computing prior to July of , it was called 80 U. This magazine often publishes listings of game programs, as well as other programs, and offers them on cassette only. They can be ordered from Basic Computing. You can also get selected back issues. Roadrace Another excellent way to buy inexpensive computer software is to buy it in book form.

In this game you are at the wheel of a high-speed race Games and Entertainment 29 car winding your way along a treacherous course. The road curves unpredictably.

To stay on course, you must steer accurately using the arrow keys or risk collision. Instructions for changing the program are in the book, so you can set your own level of difficulty. If you don't want to type the program in, it is also available on disk.

Roadrace is only one of the thirty-two programs in this book, which includes educational pro- grams, several other games, and programs for home re- cord keeping and business use. Adventure Simulations Fantasy Games Adventure simulations are strategy oriented. You must think your way through the simulation rather than act your way through. These assets are not necessary for most adventure simulations. Many of the adventure simulations do not even have graphics displays.

Instead, they rely primarily on text displayed on the screen. A game is likely to begin with a paragraph that sets the scene for the simulation: You are standing on the edge of a forest. There is a narrow winding road that leads out of the forest. The road winds through the hills to a large stone house, shrouded in fog, that stands on the edge of a cliff. You see a bootprint! Two final ingredients of an adventure simulation are incomplete information and ways of getting that in- formation.

That means you must begin the adventure without all the information you need. But there are ways to learn more about your surroundings and about how to succeed. In most adventures you move through a series of rooms, which refers to different segments of the sim- ulation, like cities or chambers in a cave. The adventure may under- stand only a few instructions or several hundred. In some games you can create your own characters, can move them independently, and give them different powers.

The characters can then go against foes they are likely to overcome for instance, a sorcerer against a wicked ma- gician or a powerful Samson type against a giant. Things do not always work out as you hope, though. It is not usual to lose some of your characters in an adventure. Not everyone enjoys playing adventure simulations. Some games take several hours, even days, to learn. Playing a complete game through to the end might take ten hours, if not longer.

Because they take quite a bit of time, some let you save your position in the game. You can play for several hours today, save the game, and resume play later at the point where you stopped.

If you like strategy, enjoy solving intricate puzzles, and have time to devote to the task, playing adventure games can be a pleasant addiction. Here are some of the popular games for the Model 4. Games and Entertainment 31 Pirate Adventure A good example of this type of game is the popular series from Adventure International written by Scott Ad- ams, one of the most famous authors of adventure games.

Pirate Adventure is one of these. In it you are searching for clues to the whereabouts of Long John Silver's trea- sure, which is hidden somewhere on a strange island. Once you find a map of the island, you can begin using some of the items you have been given to help you find the treasure. This is a text-only game — there are no graphics. As you move through the adventure, the screen describes what is happening to you.

The Adams Adventure series has adventures for be- ginners, those with moderate skill, and advanced players. Pirate Adventure is for beginners. Text-only adventure games require logic and patience beyond most children and many adults and are really not appropriate for most children younger than thirteen or so. Voyage of the Valkyrie Recently, another type of fantasy or adventure game has emerged — one that still relies on magic, demons, and wizards, but also uses detailed graphics and some- times sound.

It may be representative of the wave of the future in fantasy-ad- venture games. It has some characteristics of classic ac- tion games and some aspects of the typical fantasy games.

Finding the castles is difficult enough in itself, and takes up the first part of this game. This part of the game is similar to the classic fantasy-adventure game. All sorts of perils lie in wait as you conduct your search. The game comes with over ten pages of instructions and an assortment of maps of Fug- loy.

If you find your way to a castle, you must attack it. The castles are defended by flocks of birds that try to crash into you and kill you. You must use your number keys to center crosshairs on each one before firing. Since the castles are located on islands, you must return to your base periodically to refuel. There are ten levels of dif- ficulty in Voyage of the Valkyrie. As the game gets harder, there are more crazy birds. This means you have to use more fuel.

If you run out of fuel over the ocean, you're a goner. In the second part, the play is much more like an action game. In fact, this part of the game is similar to the bang- bang-shoot-' em-up variety found in arcades.

Graphics are obviously important, and they are quite good. Sound effects, including music, are included for those who have an audio amplifier. As we mentioned before, fantasy games have tradi- tionally depended more on strategy and logic and less on fine muscle coordination and quick reactions.

However, we suspect that many future games will, like Voyage of the Valkyrie, merge some of the aspects of action games with fantasy games.

Fantasy games will probably con- tinue to appeal mostly to older children and adults, be- cause of the logic required. Games and Entertainment 33 Simulations Simulation games are designed to mirror real-life or make-believe experiences, like flying an airplane or run- ning a large corporation. Some computerized simulations actually do help people prepare for real experiences.

The ones we discuss here are generally fun, but several also have considerable educational potential. Oil Tycoon Oil Tycoon is a popular simulation program for the Model 4 computer. In this game, two players get into the oil drilling business and play until one earns several million dollars in profits or goes bankrupt.

This is a text-only simulation. At the beginning of each game you are asked to name the two companies that compete against each other.

The first display is a table of information about each company. The beginning total net worth of each company is the same as that company's cash holdings: The table lists other infor- mation such as number of wells, oil flow in barrels, oil reserves, oil sales, net oil profit, percent of return on initial investment, and current drill depth.

These read at the beginning of the game, since no drilling or other business activity has taken place. As in real life, you can't drill without exploring first. The more money you put into research and development, the better your chances of striking oil, and the cheaper your drilling costs.

After the geology report is displayed, you are asked if you want to drill the well. Only one well can be drilled at a time so you must weigh the cost of drilling and the likelihood of a dry hole against your cash reserves and the potential profit. If you choose to drill, the drill depth is feet for each turn. The program then presents your opponent with similar choices on a different tract of land. The game can continue for hours, and you will soon find that it is more sophisticated than it may seem at first glance.

Once you bring in several wells if you're lucky enough to do that without going bankrupt , you can afford to take extra chances and invest more capital in research and development.

If you've drilled a few good wells, your capital increases with each turn as the oil continues to flow in. You may be tempted to start a price war with your opponent, but remember that as you cut prices, you will also be cutting your own incoming revenue.

Can you last longer than your opponent? That depends partly on your respective financial conditions. But it also depends on some uncontrollable variables that can sneak up and get you! Oil spills and well blowouts can occur at any time. These can spell disaster for you or your opponent, es- Games and Entertainment 35 pecially if either one of you is in financial deep water.

This is an excellent text-only simulation that can be enjoyed at many different levels. Although children aren't generally as turned on by text-only simulations as they are by games that have fancy graphics, some children enjoy Oil Tycoon. It has the added benefit of teaching something about business in general and the oil business in particular. Deadline Deadline, a unique game from Infocom, is widely available and has been adapted for many popular com- puters.

Actually, we could have discussed this game in the fantasy-adventure category, but we really couldn't decide where to put it. It is an adventure, but in a sense it's also a simulation. It's a simulation of a detective's work, and it's really fun! It is a text-only game, but it's head and shoulders above the early text-only games. Tra- ditionally, text-only computer games for microcomputers could understand, at best, only two- word sentences con- taining a verb and a noun.

It can be terribly frustrating to continue to ask the same question in as many different two-word combinations as you can think of, only to have the program continue to tell you it doesn't understand your question.

What makes Deadline so much fun is the way it can understand so many different things you type in. You aren't restricted to two-word commands. Of course, you can't talk to this program as you would to a friend, but its ability to understand a variety of commands and sentence struc- tures is truly amazing!

Marshall Robner, millionaire industrialist and philanthropist. Robner was found dead on the floor of his library, the victim of an apparent overdose of a drug he had been taking.

The door was locked from the inside. Robner had experienced re- cent business setbacks and had been suffering from severe bouts of depression. It seems to be an open-and-shut case of suicide.

It's up to you to find out. You are a private detective and you have been hired by Robner' s attorney to investigate this presumed suicide. The attorney is convinced there is no foul play, but he feels an investigation is in order since Robner was in the process of changing his will when he died.

Robner is reluctant to cooperate, but grudgingly agrees to let you spend one day in the Robner mansion. Therefore, you have a deadline of one day to complete your investigation and solve the case. Each turn consumes one minute, and a line at the top of the screen tells you how much time you have left.

You are free to move around the Robner mansion and examine anything or anybody you please. At first, the people you meet seem ordinary enough, but are they? Robner, who was frequently visited by gentlemen callers and who is obviously NOT grief stricken over her husband's death. Then there is Ms. Dunbar, Robner's personal secretary, who seems to have been unusually close to Robner. And George, the spoiled son who often quarrelled with his father.

You wonder too about Mr. Baxter, Robner's business partner. He may have more to gain from Robner's death than anyone suspects.

There is also Mrs. Rourke, the house- keeper, who seems innocent enough. She manages, though, to take an unnatural interest in the personal affairs of everyone in the Robner household. There are other characters as well. Meanwhile, the clock ticks on. This is an elegant game, beautifully and artfully pack- aged. It comes complete with a letter of employment from Robner's attorney, a coroner's report, a photo of the death scene, a crime lab analysis of the teacup, a police report, a transcript of interviews with all the people concerned with the case, and even three of the "deadly pills" found near the body.

A fine manual explains how to play the game and how to talk to the program in language it understands. It takes most people about twenty hours to complete this game, which can be saved at any point and resumed at a later time. Deadline was one of our favorite pro- grams. Anyone who enjoys mysteries will love this In- focom game. It sets a new standard for text-only games. Roger's colonial ancestors kang on one wall.

Ob one of the talles is a telephone. Miner is sitting here, knitting. From Deadline Games and Entertainment 39 Fig 2. Instant Soft- ware markets a number of flight simulations that are realistic and fun. In Mountain Pilot you must fly your plane over a mountain. O'Hare puts you in charge of the control tower at a busy airport where you must direct twenty planes to a safe landing. Two excellent simulations are available from Sublogic Communications Corporation.

Flight Simulator gives you a startlingly realistic out-the-window view from an air- craft. The program is more than a toy and can be enjoyed by beginners as well as by seasoned pilots. The dis- kette program is superior, by the way. In some games you just play the game, while others train you to play. Still others do both. Board Games Another staple of computer games are programs that are like the various board games. The chess programs are quite well developed, but even with all of modern technology, no one has managed to come up with a chess program equal to a true chess master.

It's challenging for both novices and ad- vanced players. As you play games that have been played by chess masters, your moves are analyzed and corrected by the program. Each disk con- tains four games, and you can purchase additional disks as you need them. There are ten skill levels to choose from. The program has seven different skill levels. Sports Games There are many sports games available for your com- puter. These games are suitable for both children and adults, but they do assume a knowledge of the rules of each game.

The football game is on diskette and allows you to play against a friend or the computer. One player enters offensive plays, the other defensive plays, and the com- puter displays the result. Computer Statis Pro Baseball is also a one- or two- player game and allows you to assume the role of coach of any major league team for any season since The statistics for all teams for each season since that time are entered on disk, and you may purchase the ones you want.

One team disk comes with the game. This program is not really a game but a system for handicap- ping professional football games using your computer. The program is intended for the serious gambler. As we men- tioned earlier, perhaps the best magazines for the Radio Shack computer are 80 Micro and Basic Computing. Computers are machines and machines aren't artistic.

If you think of your com- puter like that, you may be missing an opportunity to use the computer in many interesting ways. Sculptors have hammers and chisels, painters have pallettes and brushes, and musicians have pianos, electric guitars or whatever. These are all tools used to create or play. The Model 4 can also be a useful tool for budding or not so budding artists and musicians. It won't take the place of a baby grand piano or an electric organ.

You won't be able to press a button and get a Picasso to hang on your wall. It probably won't take the place of music or art lessons either, but you can do some interesting things in the areas of music and art. You can even create business graphics for reports and meetings more quickly, less expensively, and more professionally on a computer than in the traditional way. The major ways of using the computer for arts and crafts include: A few companies did offer add-on kits to make it possible to create crude sounds controlled by the computer.

From these early systems came some tinny but recognizable renditions of old favorites like Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy. Today, computer-generated music is serious business. Many college music departments have added computers to their assortment of pianos, tubas, and violins.

A mag- azine called The Computer Music Journal is devoted solely to reporting on serious computer-generated music. Much of the electronic music you hear on movie soundtracks and in concert performances is generated by very expensive, specially designed computers that use sophisticated electronic music synthesizers. When we talk about computer- generated music, we are not limiting ourselves to these large systems. Small inexpensive personal computers can also generate music.

Peter Nero not only writes music for his TRS Model HI computer; he also uses it to keep track of nearly musical scores for his concerts around the country.

He can keep records of score changes, where scores have been sent, and when they've been returned. Another serious musician who came to appreciate what a small computer could do for music was John Lennon. Producer Jack Douglas, in the June issue of Popular Computing, had this to say about Lennon 's encounter with a personal computer: John was an incredible perfectionist.

He once told me that he'd recorded only one vocal in the entire Beatle period that fully satisfied him — "Come Together" on the Abbey Road album. During the making of Double Fantasy in John would just sit with his head in his hands rejecting take after take. He got very frus- trated, so I said, "I'm going to use the computer to merge the best parts from all these takes, and you'll never be able to tell it wasn't a great one-take perfor- mance. He couldn't believe it.

He stopped sulking and then did something that was really rare in a Lennon mixing session — he smiled! We hear cycles or waves created Arts and Crafts 47 by vibrations in the air.

These are measured in cycles per second, or Hertz. The typical human can hear sounds between 20 and 15, Hertz. Notes on a piano or any other musical instrument are organized by pitch. The sound created by a piano is organized into octaves. A piano has slightly more than an eight-octave range from deep or bass sounds to high pitched notes.

An octave is a group of eight sounds, rather than a single sound. The next C note ends that octave and begins the next higher octave. Composers and musicians have created a complicated system of naming sounds of different pitch and duration, but the primary difference between one note on a piano and another is the pitch the frequency, or Hertz, of the sound. We experience this as variations in the volume of sound. Musical symbols tell the musician exactly how much time to play each note in a composition.

Different sounds have different attack and decay patterns. Some reach their maximum loudness gradually and then trail off.

Many cuts are soul standards, redone with a heavy-drum style that's pretty great — and some of the originals have more of the psych feel, but are graced by some genuinely soulful vocals, often done in harmony style. CD Limited to copies. LP, Vinyl record album In the original flap pack cover, including the insert.

An amazing package — one that's almost as essential to Albert Ayler's catalog as his classic albums on ESP from the 60s! The 9CD set is filled with rare material from Ayler — early recordings from Scandinavia, a smattering of American sides from the mid 60s, later work in France from the end of his life, and even a performance at John Coltrane's funeral!

Other players include brother Don Ayler, trumpeter Don Cherry, pianist Cecil Tayler, and Burton Greene — and the package is filled with amazing sounds that really show Ayler's inventive approach to jazz.

The box itself is beautiful — sculpted like some hand-carved treasure chest — and filled with 9CDS, plus a page full-color hardcover book that features essays by Amiri Baraka and Val Wilmer, photos and memorabilia, and a chronology of Ayler's performances.

Amazing stuff — and a true tribute to this legend! CD Out of print. Some definite gems from the Blue Sky Boys — a duo who recorded early in the country music years of King Records, and who never stayed together long enough to earn the fame of labelmates like The Stanleys or Delmore Brothers! The Boys — Bill and Earl Bolick — have a sound that's wonderfully sweet, almost Louvin-like at times — as they work through both a mix of familiar tunes and spiritual numbers, all with a nicely stripped-down style that feels like it came right from the hills to the King Records studios — with often just their own mandolin and guitar for accompaniment.

The very rare first recordings of these tunes — mono, done in the RCA Studios — legendary in status, and called by some to be the best versions ever! Limited pic sleeve single too! This album is a collection of Gaillard's work from the mids that apparently doesn't turn up in too many other places.

A wealth of rare tracks from the archives of Jamaican producer Bunny "Striker" Lee — tracks pulled from one-off dubplates mixed direct from the studio, and other unreleased tracks pulled from never-heard master tapes too!

The music here definitely lives up to Lee's production legend — and, as explained in the notes, these dubs have an extra added dimension than some of his contemporaries' work — as they're mixed from 4 track tapes, instead of 2 — which creates this much deeper sound, and even lot more room for echo! LP, Vinyl record album. A decade's worth of groundbreaking funk and African rhythms — all of it recorded by Hugh Masekela for his legendary Chisa label! Back in the 60s, Hugh cracked the American charts with a playful version of South African jazz — but he was also an even hipper cat than you'd guess from his hits, and worked with a variety of incredible acts to expand his sound — a good number of whom ended up recording for Hugh on the Chisa label, in a unique blend of American soul and African inspiration that was years ahead of its time!

The Chisa sound was one of the first true forays into pan-global grooving — and it brought the sounds of Africa to the American mainstream at a level that few had managed before. Some groups were unique projects done for record — like the Johannesburg Street Band, which featured members of The Crusaders alongside Masekela — but others featured a variety of ex-patriots living in the US, with key singers and players who shine brightly under Hugh's guidance. Like a dream come true!

The tracks are mostly in demo format — which gives them a much rougher sound than the Warner material, especially on the drums and bass parts, which could sometimes be a bit slicked up in the studio.

Stylistically, though, the tracks are very similar to the Warner material — with a punchy New Orleans groove that has the band hitting the guitars and organ heavily, and singing on most cuts with that rolling party style that peppered most of their post-Josie recordings. LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a bit of red pen on front. Brilliant work from pianist Michael Naura — one of our favorite players on the German scene at the start of the 60s — and one of the few who was really picking up the best sorts of soulful currents from the American scene!

Most of the work here features Naura's excellent combo with Wolfgang Schluter on vibes and Klaus Marmulla on alto sax — both equally-great players who work with Michael's piano in a vibe that maybe rivals some of our favorite Prestige Records material of the period, but also has some slight European modern currents too — always at a level that keeps things soulful and swinging, but with a vibe that's pretty darn fresh!

These guys just get better and better with each of their records — finding a depth and seriousness that they might have been lacking at the start — while still holding onto their sharper wit, and wide-ranging interpretation of sounds from previous years of the 20th century! The group's style mixes together roots of jazz, string band music, folk, and trippier rock — all with a blend that's maybe as pan-historical as Harpers Bizarre at their best, with a similar sense of aesthetic play that was years ahead of its time!

The package goes way past any other Pazant reissues we've seen — and features not only work from the group's famous Vanguard album, but way way more work from a host of early singles for the RCA, GWP, and Vigor labels!

The 22 track package is overstuffed with horn-heavy funky grooves that mark the Pazants as one of the hottest things going at the time — snapping on the beat with a tightness learned from their old boss Pucho, but also a willingness to explore brassier grooves in a style that seems to be influenced from the New Orleans and Texas scenes of the late 60s.

A legendary gospel quintet, and one who sing with the same sort of vocal interplay you'd hear from the best doo wop groups of the time — presented here in a killer collection of work from their formative early years — including tracks that feature later famous solo stars like Lou Rawls, Brother Joe May, and JW Alexander!

Alan Silva's usually best known as a bassist — but here he sets that instrument aside for a set of duets with William Parker — really rich music that has a much fuller feel than you'd expect from just a pair of players! The piece was entirely improvised — spontaneously composed by Parker on bass, and Silva on piano and keyboards — yet performed in a way that has this stunningly rich feel — thanks partly to lots of bowed passages on the bass, and possibly use of richer sound samples triggered via the keyboard — although it's a bit hard to tell at times.

The performance lives up to the free jazz legacy of both players, but also carries some strong currents of 20th century avant work by composers like Cage or Lutoslowski — marking another rich chapter in Parker's always-great career! A great little collection of Johnny's early work for Stax — " rare stamps" perhaps, but classic bluesy soul numbers all of them!

LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a small center split on the top seam. A very cool collection from Capitol Records, done only for the Japanese market! Side one features all tracks by Crown Prince Waterford, working in a small group with Pete Johnson on piano. Incredible sounds from the Chess Records catalog — not the blues that you might know the label for, but a huge range of funk, soul, and jazz tracks from the headiest years of the 60s and 70s — a time when the Chicago scene was really turning out some incredible musical hybrids!

As you'd guess from the title, all the cuts here have had a new life in recent years — thanks to samples by hip hop artists or other producers — but the original grooves are even better than the tracks that used them, and come together here to make one of the most mindblowing collections of Chess material we've ever heard!

LP, Vinyl record album 80s pressing. No need to count down to soul — because it's already here, and served up in a stunning array of rare tracks from the 60s and 70s!

We've always loved the Tramp label for their superb take on classic funk — they've been funky 45 specialists right from the start — but this time around, they turn their mighty ears towards the deep underground of indie soul singles — and serve up some really unique cuts that we'd never have heard otherwise! There's a great sense of variety here — there's definitely a few funky cuts, but there's also some deep ballads, some sweet harmony moments, and even some unusual cuts that seem to have a style that's completely onto themselves — which furthers the sense of discovery in the set.

Excellent work from the glory days of Impulse Records — tracks from sessions for the label's most famous albums, but never issued until this special package! We're not normally ones to dig various artists collections in jazz, but this series is wonderful — an essential counterpart to the main records on Impulse, and filled with work that really offers a fresh look at the musicians. LP, Vinyl record album Green label pressing. Cover has light wear and a cut corner.

Great sounds from a series that's always got us Feeling Nice — thanks to its never-ending array of rare funk and soul tracks from the glory days of the scene!

The work here goes way past the obvious — and given that Tramp's been giving us some of the best funky 45 reissues for over a decade, the label's very well-poised to dig up the kind of rare nuggets that often put most other compilations of this nature to shame — cuts that have yet to be discovered, collected, and sampled by most of the rest of us!

The groove is unstoppable throughout, and the cuts are the best sort of rare funky 45s — tight, short, and packing a hell of a punch — that sound that only came from deep deep deep in the American underground at the end of the 60s. Funky female soul galore — a killer set of rare tunes that's one of the best sets of this type we've ever stocked! The SuperFunk crew at BGP have gone through the rich array of labels handled by the company — pulling out some massive tunes that really push our understanding of female soul — taking things way past the obvious hits and girl group numbers, into hard and heavy-stepping territory that we really love!

Most of the tunes on the set are completely new to our ears, and there's a great mix of northern and southern funk styles that keeps things super-fresh. A fantastic collection of rare punk nuggets from the glory days of the UK scene — put together by DJ Gary Crowley, who runs a specialist show on British radio — and served up here in a book-style package that's overflowing with detailed notes, images of the original singles, and other information as well!

The collection goes way way past the usual "punk classics" package — partly because Crowley's knowledge of the music and record collection is so enormous — and partly because he's got a nicely expansive view of the generation, one that's open to all the amazing styles that were exploding at the time! Excellent rare soul from Atlantic — and a very different side of the label's output!

The focus here is on tracks that are a bit more sophisticated than the hits — not really mellow, as most of the numbers are very nice groovers, but just with a twist that sets them apart from some of the label's other material.

The track set begins with a previously unissued gem from Ben E King — "Getting To Me", which has some of the most amazing arrangements we've heard on his records — and the collection follows with an equally great batch of lesser-known cuts from the legendary soul label — really wonderful all the way through, and handled with the usual Kent Records excellent notes and sound quality.

A terrible title — but a great package of tunes! The set brings together some of the more groove-heavy tracks from the 70s catalog of Muse Records — a label that's not always known for its funkier side.

CD Out of print, penmark through barcode. A groovy batch of early 70s soul tunes — featuring some great group soul tracks, and some harder to find gems from the west coast, with an occasional Chicago track thrown in for good measure! A tasty collection of 70s soul tunes — with an LA focus that features some super-dope group harmony tunes.

Rare r-than- rare tracks from the glory days of the Northern Soul scene — a set that features some tracks that weren't originally issued on 7" singles, and others that circulated amongst DJs with fake labels on the wax! Yet the rarity isn't the main appeal here, it's the music — soaring, uptempo soul of the best possible kind — the kind of lost cuts that go way past Motown, and way past hit soul of the 60s — showing off singers who really hit their stride when they're away from the limelight, including a few who were hitting bigger fame a few years before.

The sweeter side of the James Brown galaxy of soul — and a great new entry into this series! Unlike previous volumes of "Nothing But", which focused on obscure funk produced by James Brown — this collection showcases mellower soul recorded by The Godfather, most of which have backings from The JBs, but vocals by a range of different singers!

A rip roaring blast of late 50s and early 60s rockabilly and early rockers — with some rare cuts by legendary names, others singers and bands that are familiar proto rock collectors only, and few straight up obscurities — all of it of great! LP, Vinyl record album White vinyl pressing. An overlooked source of soul from the west coast scene — rough-edged material recorded by the small Downey family of labels — a company that's mostly known for its bigger hits in rock and roll at the time!

A number of these tracks circulated as singles back in the day, but far more were lost to the shifting sands of time — and either appear here for the first time, or saw brief release in later years since their recording — certainly never in a format this well-done. The package features a whopping 26 tracks in all — plus detailed notes on the legendary Downey studios and store, and the unique story of the music as well.

Way more than the usual 80s grooves — as the set definitely takes the " rare " in its title seriously, and presents a huge amount of cuts that were even new to our boogie-trained ears! The set's not the usual electro soul or post-disco material — and instead, really moves around some great territory in the realm of 80s soul — no hip hop or house, but some wonderful material that comes from a range of indie labels, and never got much exposure at the time! CD Out of print, CDr release.

There's lots of work here that matches the raw power of more famous tracks from labels like King, Fire, or Sue Records at the time — but most of the cuts here are nicely obscure, which really makes the collection a great one for fans of raw soul! A stunning entry into one of the best Christmas collections ever — a rock-solid collection of rare Holiday funk and soul singles from back in the day — almost all of which we'd never heard before!

Tramp Records are already great when it comes to normal funk reissues — but these guys really knock it out of the park when it comes to Christmas — and come up with these killer funky numbers that would still sound great during the 11 other months of the year, but which also bring a sublime sound to our stereos in December! LP, Vinyl record album Includes download! Limited to copies, too. An excellent collection of tight modern soul and funky uptempo numbers — cuts that aren't really disco, but which are smoother than the usual funk you'd hear on the Jazzman label — a really unique hybrid that's hand-picked by the mighty Fryer!

Lots of the grooves here have a cool indie feel — a bit like Fantasy Records funky soul of the late 70s, and a bit like some of the more soulful club of the east coast scene at the time — and given the tightness of the instrumentation, there's often some nice jazzy touches in the mix — making some of the solos as appealing as the vocals! Classic funk and soul — served up here in a mighty sweet set that offers up a lot of less familiar numbers!

Many of the artists here are names you'll know, but they're represented by a great array of well-chosen cuts that dig even deeper in their catalogs — moving past the hits, and finding some overlooked gems from the 60s and 70s — which are mixed with just a few more contemporary numbers that match the classic vibe! One of the best-ever compilations of funky work from BGP Records — and even better than their other Super Breaks sets!

This one features some totally rare killers — not only from hard-to-find funky 45s, but also from obscure studio tapes that have never been properly issued! Heavy funk galore — and easily one of the best titles in the massive Super Funk series! This one seems to go deeper than all the previous volumes — really digging down for some obscure tracks that push past the obvious funky 45 standards, to include some lost gems from rare sources in the southern scene!

The set's awash in hard drums, fuzzy bass, tripped out guitar, and lots of rootsy deep soul vocals — stepping from track to track with a quality level that beats most other funky 45 collections on the market, made even better by some superb liner notes from compiler Dean Rudland! CD Out of print CDr. CD Out of print CDr pressing. LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a cut corner.

Heavy rock and heavy drums — a fuzzed out classic that's one of the best lost hard rock albums of the 70s! These guys may have been a strange choice for Motown's rock-based Rare Earth label back in the day, but they've more than made a place for themselves in the history books — thanks to some really fierce rocking, and an approach to the drums that's kept the record in more than a few crates over the years — not totally a break record, but with plenty of tight work on the drums and some really monster bass!

An excellent batch of funky rock from The Sunday Funnies — a group we only know from this album, but who have the distinction of being produced by the great Andrew Oldham!

The set's got a feel that's in keeping with the sound of Motown's Rare Earth label — well-crafted and jamming work, done in a style that's a bit more soulful than the average hard rock record of the time — nice currents of funk in the rhythms, and a fuzzy groove th at has that label's legacy of easily stepping over different modes, but in a very cohesive way. The songwriting's especially nice — and the group have a really full-on Detroit sound in their guitars — and the album's dedicated to an unusual batch of heroes who include Arthur C Clarke, Kahil Gibran, Herman Hesse, Pieter Bruegel, and Johnny Carson.

LP, Vinyl record album Cover has light wear. A much-needed look at the untapped musical legacy of Eden Ahbez — the west coast mystic who's best remembered for delivering the song "Nature Boy" to Nat King Cole legendarily walking in barefooted during a recording session!

Apart from "Nature Boy", and Ahbez's rare Eden's Island album from , most of his other songs have fallen in in the shifting sands of time — but this record does a great job of digging up the best of the bunch, and presents them in a well-documented package that's much better than some of the public domain Eden Ahbez records that have hit the market.

Put together by the same guy who did Exotic World Of Eden Ahbez — but with different tracks, and even better sound! The only album ever from Allspice — but a hell of an incredible soul record — and one that's kept the group's name strong with collectors and rare groove fanatics for years!

The album's on of the best Fantasy Records productions by Wayne Henderson and his At Home team — and like some of the others, is handled with a groove that's tight, yet plenty sophisticated too — light years from mainstream disco or common club of the late 70s, and instead informed by plenty of jazz and deeper ideas as well!

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Every letter, digit, graphic symbol, and punctuation mark the Model 4 understands has a unique code of one byte eight bits. This means there is not a place in the computer where an A or B or 7 or -I- is stored. Instead, each of those symbols has its own one-byte code. There are actually two different types of memory in the Model 4: ROM stands for Read Only Memory, which is generally programmed at the factory and cannot be changed by the user.

If you have a Model 4 with disk drives, the computer follows instructions in its ROM to load programs stored on disk. All computer memory cannot be ROM, however. RAM is general-purpose memory, available for use by the computer operator. The standard Model 4 has a little over bytes of RAM. Since each byte can store the code for one character, the bytes of RAM can hold up to characters. That is quite a bit of RAM memory.

Some of its competitors come with much less RAM memory, and the manufacturers generally charge a stiff price to add extra memory. You can add a little over bytes of RAM to the Model 4, which means you have a maximum of over , bytes. RAM is also known as volatile memory. You can store data or instructions in RAM , tell the computer to use the information you've stored there, and then replace the material in RAM with something new.

You can put data in RAM write to memory and you can see what is stored there read from memory. You can only read ROM. The biggest problem with RAM is the fact that whatever is there disappears when the computer is turned off.

If you need to save something in RAM for later use, you must Introducing the TRS Model 4 17 store it on a cassette or disk before turning the computer off. Material in ROM, on the other hand, remains there essentially forever and cannot be changed or modified. Thus far we've talked about the number of bytes of memory the Model 4 has. Computer buffs generally do not talk about memory in terms of bytes, but in terms of Ks for kilobytes. Thus 16K would be times 16, or bytes.

Just mul- tiply the number of K by 1 to determine the number of bytes of memory. Although most CPUs are smaller than a half dollar, the electronic components they contain would have filled a room a few decades ago. LSI technology permits manufacturers to cram thousands of circuits into tiny silicon chips that work dependably and use less power than an electric razor. There are several popular CPU chips today with names like Z80, , , and There are real differences among these chips, but the differences are mainly of interest to computer designers, experienced programmers, and to people who need the special capabilities of some of the chips for example, the ability to use large amounts of memory or to work very rapidly.

Because the Z80 has been on the market for several years, thousands of programs have been writ- ten for computers with Z80 CPUs. But it does make the process of converting programs to operate on other computers easier.

The Model 4 can carry its weight in the office, at home, and in the classroom. It is quite a bit of computing power for the money.

You signed your life away to the finance company and brought home a TRS Model 4 computer with all the accessories. You've astounded your friends and appeased your spouse, or tried to by demonstrating how it can analyze real estate investments, improve Junior's spelling, and store your favorite recipe for chocolate-covered cabbage. That's all well and good, but now that the friends have gone home and everyone except you is in bed, it's time to get down to business.

Time to put your computer through its paces and use it for something really important: Computer magazines and soft- ware catalogs are filled to overflowing with ads for game software. They're everywhere you go these days: Several home computers can run games strikingly similar to those ar- cade games. Some experienced gamers even prefer the better small computer games over the coin-operated ar- cade ones. There's good news and bad news about playing com- puter games on the Model 4.

The good news is that you can have a lot of fun playing games on your computer. The bad news is that the TRS Model 4 is not one of the computers that can compete with the quality of arcade games. The primary reason the Model 4 does not measure up to the Coleco Adam, the ATARI, or the Apple when it comes to video games is that the Model 4 was not de- signed primarily for recreational uses.

It can't produce very high-quality color pictures called graphics by pro- grammers. If you have ever played an arcade game, you know that much of the appeal lies in the use of colorful, imaginative graphics. The Model 4 can produce some graphics, but does not have a color display. Not all com- puter games require color graphics, and you can certainly have a lot of fun playing games of all kinds on your Model 4.

But if that's your primary reason for wanting a computer, the Model 4 is not your best choice. A Word of Caution We have not attempted to review every, or even most, of the games available for the Model 4. There are too Games and Entertainment 21 many of them, and quite a few are so poor they don't deserve mention. It would take many pages to review all the bad recreational software for the Model 4, so we decided to use the space in this book to describe software we found at least acceptable, if not excellent.

Even with that limitation, we can't describe all the good software that is available. We've reviewed many of the good pro- grams to give you an idea of the types of games you can find for the Model 4. Because the Model 4 is a new computer, most of the software available when we wrote this book was created for the Model III. These programs run on a Model 4 with no modification.

By the time you read this, you may be able to buy versions written specifically to take advantage of the Model 4's new features.

We came up with a system of categories but we have since found they're not as clear- cut as we originally thought. As gaming gets more so- phisticated, the divisions between categories blur.

Never- theless, we will discuss computer gaming on the TRS- 80 Model 4 computer in the following categories: Action Games Some of the most popular computer games are action games. Actually, there are several types of action games. Insiders in the computer industry sometimes refer to these games as bang-bang-shoot-' em- up games.

That certainly sums it up! You spend your time zapping alien spaceships or blasting asteroids. In other types of action games, you guide race cars around a track or play tennis or hockey. Without intricate color graphics, the Model 4 is less suited for action games than for some of the other categories. We'll review a few action games we think you'll enjoy, then go on to other games more suited to the Model 4.

It is set in the not-too-distant future; the world is at war but has realized nuclear conflict is impractical. Instead, con- ventional weapons are being used. You are in charge of a fleet of four Rotoblasters, flying craft you can maneuver up or down, right or left, with the arrow keys on your computer.

You use your Rotoblasters one at a time until each one is destroyed. You can aim and fire lasers at three Eastern Bloc Hovertanks. These ground-based craft are slow but deadly accurate as they track and fire at you. You aim your laser gun with the right and left arrow keys, arm the gun by pressing the space bar, and fire by releasing the space bar.

This is a somewhat unusual arrangement for firing and takes some getting used to, but that adds interest to the game. If one of your Rotoblasters is hit and it will be , you crash to the ground.

There must have been a little bit of kamikaze in the programmer, because even as you fall crazily to the ground, you retain right-left control and can take out a Hovertank by crashing into it. You can use a joystick instead of the arrow keys, and we definitely recommend the use of an audio amplifier, since the sound effects are really impressive in this game. A few programmers took advantage of the cassette circuits on the computer, however, and wrote sound effects instructions in their software.

Plug a small speaker into the computer through one of the cassette recorder cables, and you'll get sounds in quadraphonic stereo that aren't bad. The graphics in this program are better than average, and the game is fast with three skill levels.

At the harder skill levels, the Hovertanks fire more quickly and more accurately. It is very much like the arcade game called Asteroids, but without color graphics or sound effects.

If you're familiar with the Asteroids arcade game, you know the basic dilemma. Your ship is in a gigantic as- teroid field. To play the game, you move the ship or fire Games and Entertainment 25 your laser to avoid colliding with the moving asteroids. You earn points by destroying asteroids, with the smaller asteroids worth more points than the larger ones. Just to make things a little more uncomfortable for you, while all this is going on, a variety of enemy space- ships try to shoot you; you have to get them first.

You can control your ship by rotating it, firing its engines, or escaping to hyperspace, which should be your last resort: You may find yourself in a worse fix than before you went in! The game gets more and more difficult as it goes on.

Asteroids and enemy ships come faster and faster, and the enemy ships fire more and more shots at you. If you survive long enough to pile up a score of 90, or more, consider yourself an expert. If things get too tough, you can stop the action tem- porarily. Several other options include a super- fast and a super-slow action mode, and modes you can use to perfect your piloting and shooting skills. The arcade ver- sion of this game has been a huge success with both children and adults and continues to attract quarters.

The TRS version is fast and challenging, and the graphics are about as good as you can expect to find in a Model 4 action game. You'll be taking a chance with some games, but Planetoids is almost certain to be a hit with the whole family. Regilian Worm Regilian Worm is a good example of an action game that is a little different from the bang-bang-shoot-' em-up variety.

Shoot-'em-ups are fun, but you can blast only so many thousands of enemy fleets before terminal bore- dom begins to set in. It can be very fast, but doesn't use a single laser or guided missile. You use the arrow keys to guide the Regilian Worm around the screen so he can eat a crew of nasties known as Zansbards. As he eats each Zansbard, points mount up. The more the worm eats, the longer he grows and the harder it is to move him around the screen without running into a wall or touching his own tail.

When you do either of these things, you lose. This is a good action game with ten different speeds at each of four difficulty levels. This ensures a level for players of almost any age. As you get better, you can increase the difficulty level and keep the play challeng- ing.

Regilian Worm is a welcome new wrinkle or wiggle in the world of action gaming. Leaper Leaper is an action game similar to the popular arcade game called Frogger. In this game, you guide a frog through dangerous situations and try to reach one of six safe cubbyholes at the top of the screen.

When the game begins, you have three frogs. You must move the first one across a highway of speeding automobiles. If you make it, the next challenge is getting the frog across a river by jumping from lily pads to logs.

The only prob- lem is the lily pads may sink, or the logs may actually be hungry crocodiles. To make things a little more dif- ficult, you have only thirty seconds to guide each frog to safety. Games and Entertainment 27 Once you get six frogs into the safe havens at the top of the screen, you earn a bonus frog and move up to the next level of difficulty.

As you reach each new level, there are fewer lily pads, more crocodiles and faster and more numerous cars. Leaper is a good action game for your Model 4. It's inexpensive, interesting, and should keep your interest for quite a while as you move from easier to more difficult levels. In this game you chase and punch a punching bag. The bag can appear at any position on the screen.

You move around the screen by using the arrow keys. The game is really a test of how fast you react. Boxer lacks the complex graphics and numerous skill levels you get from expensive commercial games written by experts. On the other hand, it's fun for a short while and it has the added attraction of being free. Boxer is typical of the free games printed in computer magazines. There's a catch, though. Before you can play Boxer, you have to type in the entire program approx- imately lines.

This is time-consuming, and if you make errors, the game doesn't work right. Nevertheless, there is satisfaction in getting an enjoyable game for nothing, even if it takes some effort. If you aren't interested in typing in the program your- self, there is an alternative.

Several computer magazines sell cassette tapes or diskettes containing the major pro- grams listed in each issue. If you don't want to shell out that much money for programs you haven't seen. Load 80 is available on cassette for all issues of 80 Micro from April , 1 98 1 to the present, and on diskette from March, to the present. Load 80 cassettes and diskettes are sold without man- uals or any kind of documentation.

So you often need a copy of the 80 Micro issue that listed the program. When this chapter was written, back issues for most cop- ies since , as well as selected earlier back issues, were available.

Another computer magazine dealing exclusively with TRS computers is called Basic Computing prior to July of , it was called 80 U. This magazine often publishes listings of game programs, as well as other programs, and offers them on cassette only.

They can be ordered from Basic Computing. You can also get selected back issues. Roadrace Another excellent way to buy inexpensive computer software is to buy it in book form. In this game you are at the wheel of a high-speed race Games and Entertainment 29 car winding your way along a treacherous course. The road curves unpredictably. To stay on course, you must steer accurately using the arrow keys or risk collision. Instructions for changing the program are in the book, so you can set your own level of difficulty.

If you don't want to type the program in, it is also available on disk. Roadrace is only one of the thirty-two programs in this book, which includes educational pro- grams, several other games, and programs for home re- cord keeping and business use. Adventure Simulations Fantasy Games Adventure simulations are strategy oriented.

You must think your way through the simulation rather than act your way through. These assets are not necessary for most adventure simulations. Many of the adventure simulations do not even have graphics displays. Instead, they rely primarily on text displayed on the screen. A game is likely to begin with a paragraph that sets the scene for the simulation: You are standing on the edge of a forest. There is a narrow winding road that leads out of the forest. The road winds through the hills to a large stone house, shrouded in fog, that stands on the edge of a cliff.

You see a bootprint! Two final ingredients of an adventure simulation are incomplete information and ways of getting that in- formation. That means you must begin the adventure without all the information you need. But there are ways to learn more about your surroundings and about how to succeed. In most adventures you move through a series of rooms, which refers to different segments of the sim- ulation, like cities or chambers in a cave. The adventure may under- stand only a few instructions or several hundred.

In some games you can create your own characters, can move them independently, and give them different powers. The characters can then go against foes they are likely to overcome for instance, a sorcerer against a wicked ma- gician or a powerful Samson type against a giant.

Things do not always work out as you hope, though. It is not usual to lose some of your characters in an adventure. Not everyone enjoys playing adventure simulations.

Some games take several hours, even days, to learn. Playing a complete game through to the end might take ten hours, if not longer. Because they take quite a bit of time, some let you save your position in the game. You can play for several hours today, save the game, and resume play later at the point where you stopped. If you like strategy, enjoy solving intricate puzzles, and have time to devote to the task, playing adventure games can be a pleasant addiction.

Here are some of the popular games for the Model 4. Games and Entertainment 31 Pirate Adventure A good example of this type of game is the popular series from Adventure International written by Scott Ad- ams, one of the most famous authors of adventure games.

Pirate Adventure is one of these. In it you are searching for clues to the whereabouts of Long John Silver's trea- sure, which is hidden somewhere on a strange island.

Once you find a map of the island, you can begin using some of the items you have been given to help you find the treasure. This is a text-only game — there are no graphics. As you move through the adventure, the screen describes what is happening to you. The Adams Adventure series has adventures for be- ginners, those with moderate skill, and advanced players.

Pirate Adventure is for beginners. Text-only adventure games require logic and patience beyond most children and many adults and are really not appropriate for most children younger than thirteen or so. Voyage of the Valkyrie Recently, another type of fantasy or adventure game has emerged — one that still relies on magic, demons, and wizards, but also uses detailed graphics and some- times sound. It may be representative of the wave of the future in fantasy-ad- venture games. It has some characteristics of classic ac- tion games and some aspects of the typical fantasy games.

Finding the castles is difficult enough in itself, and takes up the first part of this game. This part of the game is similar to the classic fantasy-adventure game. All sorts of perils lie in wait as you conduct your search. The game comes with over ten pages of instructions and an assortment of maps of Fug- loy. If you find your way to a castle, you must attack it.

The castles are defended by flocks of birds that try to crash into you and kill you. You must use your number keys to center crosshairs on each one before firing. Since the castles are located on islands, you must return to your base periodically to refuel. There are ten levels of dif- ficulty in Voyage of the Valkyrie. As the game gets harder, there are more crazy birds. This means you have to use more fuel. If you run out of fuel over the ocean, you're a goner.

In the second part, the play is much more like an action game. In fact, this part of the game is similar to the bang- bang-shoot-' em-up variety found in arcades.

Graphics are obviously important, and they are quite good. Sound effects, including music, are included for those who have an audio amplifier. As we mentioned before, fantasy games have tradi- tionally depended more on strategy and logic and less on fine muscle coordination and quick reactions. However, we suspect that many future games will, like Voyage of the Valkyrie, merge some of the aspects of action games with fantasy games.

Fantasy games will probably con- tinue to appeal mostly to older children and adults, be- cause of the logic required. Games and Entertainment 33 Simulations Simulation games are designed to mirror real-life or make-believe experiences, like flying an airplane or run- ning a large corporation.

Some computerized simulations actually do help people prepare for real experiences. The ones we discuss here are generally fun, but several also have considerable educational potential. Oil Tycoon Oil Tycoon is a popular simulation program for the Model 4 computer. In this game, two players get into the oil drilling business and play until one earns several million dollars in profits or goes bankrupt. This is a text-only simulation.

At the beginning of each game you are asked to name the two companies that compete against each other. The first display is a table of information about each company. The beginning total net worth of each company is the same as that company's cash holdings: The table lists other infor- mation such as number of wells, oil flow in barrels, oil reserves, oil sales, net oil profit, percent of return on initial investment, and current drill depth.

These read at the beginning of the game, since no drilling or other business activity has taken place. As in real life, you can't drill without exploring first. The more money you put into research and development, the better your chances of striking oil, and the cheaper your drilling costs. After the geology report is displayed, you are asked if you want to drill the well.

Only one well can be drilled at a time so you must weigh the cost of drilling and the likelihood of a dry hole against your cash reserves and the potential profit. If you choose to drill, the drill depth is feet for each turn. The program then presents your opponent with similar choices on a different tract of land.

The game can continue for hours, and you will soon find that it is more sophisticated than it may seem at first glance. Once you bring in several wells if you're lucky enough to do that without going bankrupt , you can afford to take extra chances and invest more capital in research and development. If you've drilled a few good wells, your capital increases with each turn as the oil continues to flow in.

You may be tempted to start a price war with your opponent, but remember that as you cut prices, you will also be cutting your own incoming revenue. Can you last longer than your opponent? That depends partly on your respective financial conditions. But it also depends on some uncontrollable variables that can sneak up and get you! Oil spills and well blowouts can occur at any time. These can spell disaster for you or your opponent, es- Games and Entertainment 35 pecially if either one of you is in financial deep water.

This is an excellent text-only simulation that can be enjoyed at many different levels. Although children aren't generally as turned on by text-only simulations as they are by games that have fancy graphics, some children enjoy Oil Tycoon. It has the added benefit of teaching something about business in general and the oil business in particular. Deadline Deadline, a unique game from Infocom, is widely available and has been adapted for many popular com- puters. Actually, we could have discussed this game in the fantasy-adventure category, but we really couldn't decide where to put it.

It is an adventure, but in a sense it's also a simulation. It's a simulation of a detective's work, and it's really fun!

It is a text-only game, but it's head and shoulders above the early text-only games. Tra- ditionally, text-only computer games for microcomputers could understand, at best, only two- word sentences con- taining a verb and a noun. It can be terribly frustrating to continue to ask the same question in as many different two-word combinations as you can think of, only to have the program continue to tell you it doesn't understand your question.

What makes Deadline so much fun is the way it can understand so many different things you type in. You aren't restricted to two-word commands. Of course, you can't talk to this program as you would to a friend, but its ability to understand a variety of commands and sentence struc- tures is truly amazing!

Marshall Robner, millionaire industrialist and philanthropist. Robner was found dead on the floor of his library, the victim of an apparent overdose of a drug he had been taking. The door was locked from the inside. Robner had experienced re- cent business setbacks and had been suffering from severe bouts of depression.

It seems to be an open-and-shut case of suicide. It's up to you to find out. You are a private detective and you have been hired by Robner' s attorney to investigate this presumed suicide. The attorney is convinced there is no foul play, but he feels an investigation is in order since Robner was in the process of changing his will when he died.

Robner is reluctant to cooperate, but grudgingly agrees to let you spend one day in the Robner mansion. Therefore, you have a deadline of one day to complete your investigation and solve the case.

Each turn consumes one minute, and a line at the top of the screen tells you how much time you have left. You are free to move around the Robner mansion and examine anything or anybody you please. At first, the people you meet seem ordinary enough, but are they? Robner, who was frequently visited by gentlemen callers and who is obviously NOT grief stricken over her husband's death. Then there is Ms. Dunbar, Robner's personal secretary, who seems to have been unusually close to Robner.

And George, the spoiled son who often quarrelled with his father. You wonder too about Mr. Baxter, Robner's business partner. He may have more to gain from Robner's death than anyone suspects. There is also Mrs. Rourke, the house- keeper, who seems innocent enough. She manages, though, to take an unnatural interest in the personal affairs of everyone in the Robner household. There are other characters as well.

Meanwhile, the clock ticks on. This is an elegant game, beautifully and artfully pack- aged. It comes complete with a letter of employment from Robner's attorney, a coroner's report, a photo of the death scene, a crime lab analysis of the teacup, a police report, a transcript of interviews with all the people concerned with the case, and even three of the "deadly pills" found near the body.

A fine manual explains how to play the game and how to talk to the program in language it understands. It takes most people about twenty hours to complete this game, which can be saved at any point and resumed at a later time.

Deadline was one of our favorite pro- grams. Anyone who enjoys mysteries will love this In- focom game. It sets a new standard for text-only games. Roger's colonial ancestors kang on one wall. Ob one of the talles is a telephone.

Miner is sitting here, knitting. From Deadline Games and Entertainment 39 Fig 2. Instant Soft- ware markets a number of flight simulations that are realistic and fun. In Mountain Pilot you must fly your plane over a mountain. O'Hare puts you in charge of the control tower at a busy airport where you must direct twenty planes to a safe landing.

Two excellent simulations are available from Sublogic Communications Corporation. Flight Simulator gives you a startlingly realistic out-the-window view from an air- craft.

The program is more than a toy and can be enjoyed by beginners as well as by seasoned pilots. The dis- kette program is superior, by the way. In some games you just play the game, while others train you to play.

Still others do both. Board Games Another staple of computer games are programs that are like the various board games. The chess programs are quite well developed, but even with all of modern technology, no one has managed to come up with a chess program equal to a true chess master. It's challenging for both novices and ad- vanced players. As you play games that have been played by chess masters, your moves are analyzed and corrected by the program.

Each disk con- tains four games, and you can purchase additional disks as you need them. There are ten skill levels to choose from. The program has seven different skill levels. Sports Games There are many sports games available for your com- puter.

These games are suitable for both children and adults, but they do assume a knowledge of the rules of each game. The football game is on diskette and allows you to play against a friend or the computer.

One player enters offensive plays, the other defensive plays, and the com- puter displays the result. Computer Statis Pro Baseball is also a one- or two- player game and allows you to assume the role of coach of any major league team for any season since The statistics for all teams for each season since that time are entered on disk, and you may purchase the ones you want. One team disk comes with the game. This program is not really a game but a system for handicap- ping professional football games using your computer.

The program is intended for the serious gambler. As we men- tioned earlier, perhaps the best magazines for the Radio Shack computer are 80 Micro and Basic Computing.

Computers are machines and machines aren't artistic. If you think of your com- puter like that, you may be missing an opportunity to use the computer in many interesting ways. Sculptors have hammers and chisels, painters have pallettes and brushes, and musicians have pianos, electric guitars or whatever. These are all tools used to create or play. The Model 4 can also be a useful tool for budding or not so budding artists and musicians. It won't take the place of a baby grand piano or an electric organ.

You won't be able to press a button and get a Picasso to hang on your wall. It probably won't take the place of music or art lessons either, but you can do some interesting things in the areas of music and art. You can even create business graphics for reports and meetings more quickly, less expensively, and more professionally on a computer than in the traditional way. The major ways of using the computer for arts and crafts include: A few companies did offer add-on kits to make it possible to create crude sounds controlled by the computer.

From these early systems came some tinny but recognizable renditions of old favorites like Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy.

Today, computer-generated music is serious business. Many college music departments have added computers to their assortment of pianos, tubas, and violins. A mag- azine called The Computer Music Journal is devoted solely to reporting on serious computer-generated music. Much of the electronic music you hear on movie soundtracks and in concert performances is generated by very expensive, specially designed computers that use sophisticated electronic music synthesizers.

When we talk about computer- generated music, we are not limiting ourselves to these large systems. Small inexpensive personal computers can also generate music. Peter Nero not only writes music for his TRS Model HI computer; he also uses it to keep track of nearly musical scores for his concerts around the country. He can keep records of score changes, where scores have been sent, and when they've been returned.

Another serious musician who came to appreciate what a small computer could do for music was John Lennon. Producer Jack Douglas, in the June issue of Popular Computing, had this to say about Lennon 's encounter with a personal computer: John was an incredible perfectionist. He once told me that he'd recorded only one vocal in the entire Beatle period that fully satisfied him — "Come Together" on the Abbey Road album. During the making of Double Fantasy in John would just sit with his head in his hands rejecting take after take.

He got very frus- trated, so I said, "I'm going to use the computer to merge the best parts from all these takes, and you'll never be able to tell it wasn't a great one-take perfor- mance. He couldn't believe it. He stopped sulking and then did something that was really rare in a Lennon mixing session — he smiled! We hear cycles or waves created Arts and Crafts 47 by vibrations in the air. These are measured in cycles per second, or Hertz.

The typical human can hear sounds between 20 and 15, Hertz. Notes on a piano or any other musical instrument are organized by pitch. The sound created by a piano is organized into octaves.

A piano has slightly more than an eight-octave range from deep or bass sounds to high pitched notes. An octave is a group of eight sounds, rather than a single sound. The next C note ends that octave and begins the next higher octave. Composers and musicians have created a complicated system of naming sounds of different pitch and duration, but the primary difference between one note on a piano and another is the pitch the frequency, or Hertz, of the sound. We experience this as variations in the volume of sound.

Musical symbols tell the musician exactly how much time to play each note in a composition. Different sounds have different attack and decay patterns. Some reach their maximum loudness gradually and then trail off. Others begin at maximum loudness and stop abruptly. The pat- tern of changes in loudness of a tone help determine the timbre. Some sounds are pure tones that is, they have only one pitch. Others have a major tone at a particular frequency, with harmonic or secondary frequencies that add richness.

These secondary sounds are part of what gives each musical instrument its own personality. The Model 4 has a rather simple sound generation system.

However, several companies other than Radio Shack sell products that let you generate much more sophisticated sounds on the Model 4. With a good sound or music synthesis system, you can control several aspects of sound. You may have read ads that talk about the number of voices in a system. A one-voice system can play only one tone at a time — not very interesting music.

A three- or four- voice synthesizer, on the other hand, can create beautiful mu- sic, especially if it controls many different aspects of each tone. Music with the TRS Model 4 One way to get your TRS Model 4 to make music is to learn a computer language and use it to tell the computer what musical notes you want it to play. Because it has a built-in sound generator, you can use any pro- gramming language the computer understands to give it instructions for making musical notes.

Each language has its own way of controlling and manipulating the sound capabilities of the computer. This BA- SIC instruction can be expanded to tell the computer such things as pitch and duration of the sound. Once you can control these factors, the amount and quality of music you get from the computer depends on your musical skill and creativity. Arts and Crafts 49 There are two problems with the do-it-yourself ap- proach: Some people don't want to do that. Others investigate writing music pro- grams in a language like BASIC and decide it just isn't suited to the task.

Much of what you learn in the process doesn't transfer to other methods of composing or playing music. Your composition won't sound like a piece orchestra. Because of these limitations many Radio Shack owners add software specially written to generate music, and more sophisticated music synthesizers.

Then they can create some very sophisticated music on the Model 4. Since the Model 4 is new, many of the programs we review were originally developed for the Model III. Most will run without modification on the Model 4, and many are being rewritten specifically for it. Software and Peripherals for Music There are software packages available for most com- puters that allow you to learn a lot about computer-gen- erated music. Orchestra is a program stored on floppy disk, plus an attachment called an interface board that plugs into the bottom of the computer and allows you to connect the computer to a home stereo system.

With the program, the interface board, and the stereo, you get stereo music. One obvious difference between using a computer to make music and using a piano or organ is the lack of a standard keyboard. When you sit down to any standard keyboard instrument, you don't have to worry about how to make a single note sound long or short.

You just hold down a key for as long as you want the note to sound. The computer, on the other hand, has to be told every- thing about each note it generates: This can get very complicated. The prob- lem is partially solved for you by Orchestra This program does three things that make composing music on the computer much easier than it would be if you had to write the music program yourself: You do this by pressing keys on the regular Model 4 keyboard.

Then you can edit the information you put on the musical staff until you have it just right. Your musical pieces can be relatively simple com- positions or fairly complex. This is a five-voice system. You can tell the computer to play between one and five notes at the same time, with up to five different tim- bre settings for each note.

Orchestra comes with a well-organized and helpful forty-three page instruction manual. Music A less expensive way to turn the Model 4 into a musical instrument is to type in or buy on cassette tape a program called Music, which was published in the March issue of 80 Micro magazine. Music does basically the same thing that Orchestra does, only not as well.

The old saying, "You get what you pay for" is certainly true in this case. Music lets you have fun with computer music at almost no cost. The biggest disadvantage of Music is the quality of sound. Music was written for the Model III computer, which does not have a built-in amplifier. Don't laugh at the name of this company: Like the other programs we've mentioned, this one was written for the Model III. After loading the program into the computer's memory, you can compose a new piece of music by typing notes on the keyboard.

You type in instructions to play notes in a four-octave range two above and two below middle C , and the notes appear on the screen in a standard musical staff. This two-voice program lets you control many aspects of the music, including tempo.

You can save your music on cassette or disk and edit it later. You can also combine musical creations. You can play your music on the cas- sette recorder, with a speaker on the computer, or through a regular stereo. Micro Chord is an inexpensive and useful program for exploring music synthesis. Because it uses the same ter- minology as traditional music, you learn to computerize signatures, sharps, flats, quarter notes, half notes, and so on.

It is well worth the price. Music Training Some software packages use the music capabilities of the computer for teaching music principles. Educational applications are discussed in Chapter Four, so we refer only briefly to the educational programs here. Programs that use the computer as a music teaching tool are generally the drill and practice type.

For example, a program may sound a note and ask you to name the note. Or, it may play a short melody and then ask you to play the same melody by typing it on the keyboard. One of the most interesting programs we found for the TRS Model 4 was one that acts as a music tutor and Arts and Crafts 53 takes much of the tedium out of learning to play the guitar.

In this program, you begin by typing in the names of the notes for a song you want to learn. The program allows you to describe each chord and each melody note of the song with regular keyboard letters. For example, if you wanted to enter a C chord, you would just type the letter C on the keyboard. You can change the chords and melody notes to get the song just as you want it.

When you have entered the song, the computer will dis- play the fingering pattern for each chord and melody note on the screen. Instead of having to figure out how to place your fingers on the strings from the notes on the music script, you can see the fingering pattern on the screen. You control the speed at which the computer scrolls the fingering patterns across the screen.

The program will also automatically transpose the fin- gering patterns from one key to another. If you type in a song written in the key of B flat, and the only key you can play is C, you can ask the computer to show you the song in the key of C. This program can be used in two ways. First, it can be used for basic practice by beginning guitarists. If you are just learning to play the guitar, you can practice get- ting your fingers on the right strings and making the right sounds as the fingering patterns appear on the screen.

You determine what level of difficulty the music is. A second way you can use the program is as an aid to learning new songs. You simply practice the new song in whatever key you want, playing it while the computer shows the fingering patterns.

There are 80 squares on each of 24 different lines. This computer displays upper and lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and several special symbols in any of those squares. A screen that is divided into only a few thousand squares is called a low-resolution screen. A particular square on the Model 4's screen may have a capital A, a lowercase h, a comma, or some other symbol in it. There is even a set of special graphics characters. What the computer is actually displaying on the screen is a set of dots.

If you look carefully at the information on the screen, you can probably see that each letter and character is not really a solid image but a pattern of closely-spaced dots.

Each character square on the screen is made up of a table of dot locations. A character square on the Model 4 is eight dots wide and eight dots deep. All low-resolution graphics and character displays are created by sending patterns of dots to the screen. Each of the possible locations on the screen can display anything from a square where all of the 64 dots eight rows of eight dots are off a blank square to a square where all 64 dots are on a solid square.

By turning some of the dots on and some off. The disadvantage of low-resolution graphics is that you must use the characters the Model 4 already understands to draw pictures. This means you have to deal with all 64 dots in each square at once. With high-resolution graphics, you can control each dot on the screen inde- Arts and Crafts 55 pendently.

If a picture you are creating calls for one particular dot in a square to be turned on, high-resolution lets you turn on that one without turning on the others. High-resolution graphics lets you control tens of thou- sands of individual dots on the screen instead of sets of 64 dots. There are no instructions in BASIC that let you control individual dots which means you can't do dot addressable graphics.

With it installed, you can use the computer to create excellent graphics. However, the graphics are not in color, and that is a significant drawback.

A few companies sold color graphics boards for the Model HI, and they are likely to sell similar products for the Model 4. For that price you can buy any of the five or six home computers with great color graphics built-in.

If the applications you have in mind don't require color, the high-resolution graphics options for the Model 4 may be appealing. With them the computer can create excellent charts and figures for all sorts of business and professional applications. Be sure to buy the software in a Model 4 version, so the screen display is 24 lines of 80 squares instead of 16 by 64, as it is on the Model III. When the circuit board that comes with the program is installed in your computer, the screen is divided into lines of dots.

This means you control a total of 98, dots! With almost , pixels you can create very fine-grained, detailed images on the screen. The keyword BOX, for example, lets you create anything from a tiny square less than a half inch across to a large square that nearly fills the screen. There are similar keywords for circles and lines. Micro-Labs also sells several software packages that work with the Grafyx Solution.

There are several plotting programs that help you graphically illustrate many math and geometry concepts. With this program, like most of its type, you can create sophisticated graphics on the screen and then generate a copy of that screen on a dot matrix printer. It works with many popular printers that create letters and characters in patterns of dots. If you want to print letters or reports in Old English Script or large block letters, you can do that, with this program, using printers like the Epson series, C.

Dot Writer is really three different programs: This program offers you some very useful features. For example, you can use Dot Writer to type a report with double or triple size headings. Suppose you want a quote to stand out from the rest of a report: Dot Writer can print tiny, boldfaced letters. A dot addressable printer lets you control each of the dots that make up a letter or character.

It is the printing equivalent to high-resolution graphics. Some graphics, particularly business graphics, need more than can be produced conveniently on a dot matrix printer. This program, and several others, can be used with a device called a plotter to design and label pie charts, histograms, and other graphs.

The plotter creates a copy of a graph on paper or acetate sheets by moving a special pen across the surface. It's fascinating to see one of these plotters work. The pen whizzes around drawing circles, lines, and letters of several sizes. If part of the graph is in blue and another in red, the plotter draws the blue sections first and then goes over to the edge of the device where pens are stored. It puts the blue pen in its storage slot and moves down to pick up the red pen. As you watch, a professional quality multi-colored graph is cre- ated.

Graphics Tablets Plotters are special output devices for graphics. You can also get special devices to give graphics information to the computer. Several computers accept input from graphics tablets. As you draw on the surface of the pad with a special stylus, the pattern is duplicated on the screen. That means you can put an illustration or drawing on the pad and trace over it, cre- ating the same illustration on the screen. This is a very convenient method of creating computer graphics.

Sev- eral tablets have software that let you incorporate graphics into other programs. At present we know of no tablet compatible with the Model 4, but we think there may be several in the near future since tablets are increasing in popularity. Whether you are interested in a hobby or looking for help with professional tasks, the Model 4 may be of use for both music and graphic arts. This is particularly true if you are willing to spend some money on extra hardware or software.

However, the computer is only the latest in a long list of technological inventions that were supposed to revolutionize education in the twentieth cen- tury. In spite of the attention computers receive in the educational press, we believe they are unlikely to revo- lutionize the little red schoolhouse overnight.

However, we expect education will evolve quickly in the coming years, for two reasons. First, we will have to continue to learn, regardless of our age, if we are to cope with change. Second, learning will occur someplace other than public school classrooms. Learning has been something children do in a classroom supervised by one or more adults. More people will spend time learning at home, in the office, in the factory, and at adult learning centers.

Learning will be a lifelong task rather than something children do to prepare for adult- hood. Because we live in a time of accelerated change, information is outdated quickly, and new information appears at a faster and faster rate. In earlier times you could learn a trade or profession and then earn your livelihood for the rest of your life with the skills you acquired.

Today virtually every job is being changed or eliminated by new information, new social trends, or new technology. The performance lives up to the free jazz legacy of both players, but also carries some strong currents of 20th century avant work by composers like Cage or Lutoslowski — marking another rich chapter in Parker's always-great career! A great little collection of Johnny's early work for Stax — " rare stamps" perhaps, but classic bluesy soul numbers all of them!

LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a small center split on the top seam. A very cool collection from Capitol Records, done only for the Japanese market! Side one features all tracks by Crown Prince Waterford, working in a small group with Pete Johnson on piano. Incredible sounds from the Chess Records catalog — not the blues that you might know the label for, but a huge range of funk, soul, and jazz tracks from the headiest years of the 60s and 70s — a time when the Chicago scene was really turning out some incredible musical hybrids!

As you'd guess from the title, all the cuts here have had a new life in recent years — thanks to samples by hip hop artists or other producers — but the original grooves are even better than the tracks that used them, and come together here to make one of the most mindblowing collections of Chess material we've ever heard!

LP, Vinyl record album 80s pressing. No need to count down to soul — because it's already here, and served up in a stunning array of rare tracks from the 60s and 70s! We've always loved the Tramp label for their superb take on classic funk — they've been funky 45 specialists right from the start — but this time around, they turn their mighty ears towards the deep underground of indie soul singles — and serve up some really unique cuts that we'd never have heard otherwise!

There's a great sense of variety here — there's definitely a few funky cuts, but there's also some deep ballads, some sweet harmony moments, and even some unusual cuts that seem to have a style that's completely onto themselves — which furthers the sense of discovery in the set. Excellent work from the glory days of Impulse Records — tracks from sessions for the label's most famous albums, but never issued until this special package!

We're not normally ones to dig various artists collections in jazz, but this series is wonderful — an essential counterpart to the main records on Impulse, and filled with work that really offers a fresh look at the musicians. LP, Vinyl record album Green label pressing. Cover has light wear and a cut corner. Great sounds from a series that's always got us Feeling Nice — thanks to its never-ending array of rare funk and soul tracks from the glory days of the scene!

The work here goes way past the obvious — and given that Tramp's been giving us some of the best funky 45 reissues for over a decade, the label's very well-poised to dig up the kind of rare nuggets that often put most other compilations of this nature to shame — cuts that have yet to be discovered, collected, and sampled by most of the rest of us!

The groove is unstoppable throughout, and the cuts are the best sort of rare funky 45s — tight, short, and packing a hell of a punch — that sound that only came from deep deep deep in the American underground at the end of the 60s.

Funky female soul galore — a killer set of rare tunes that's one of the best sets of this type we've ever stocked! The SuperFunk crew at BGP have gone through the rich array of labels handled by the company — pulling out some massive tunes that really push our understanding of female soul — taking things way past the obvious hits and girl group numbers, into hard and heavy-stepping territory that we really love!

Most of the tunes on the set are completely new to our ears, and there's a great mix of northern and southern funk styles that keeps things super-fresh.

A fantastic collection of rare punk nuggets from the glory days of the UK scene — put together by DJ Gary Crowley, who runs a specialist show on British radio — and served up here in a book-style package that's overflowing with detailed notes, images of the original singles, and other information as well! The collection goes way way past the usual "punk classics" package — partly because Crowley's knowledge of the music and record collection is so enormous — and partly because he's got a nicely expansive view of the generation, one that's open to all the amazing styles that were exploding at the time!

Excellent rare soul from Atlantic — and a very different side of the label's output! The focus here is on tracks that are a bit more sophisticated than the hits — not really mellow, as most of the numbers are very nice groovers, but just with a twist that sets them apart from some of the label's other material.

The track set begins with a previously unissued gem from Ben E King — "Getting To Me", which has some of the most amazing arrangements we've heard on his records — and the collection follows with an equally great batch of lesser-known cuts from the legendary soul label — really wonderful all the way through, and handled with the usual Kent Records excellent notes and sound quality.

A terrible title — but a great package of tunes! The set brings together some of the more groove-heavy tracks from the 70s catalog of Muse Records — a label that's not always known for its funkier side. CD Out of print, penmark through barcode.

A groovy batch of early 70s soul tunes — featuring some great group soul tracks, and some harder to find gems from the west coast, with an occasional Chicago track thrown in for good measure!

A tasty collection of 70s soul tunes — with an LA focus that features some super-dope group harmony tunes.

Rare r-than- rare tracks from the glory days of the Northern Soul scene — a set that features some tracks that weren't originally issued on 7" singles, and others that circulated amongst DJs with fake labels on the wax!

Yet the rarity isn't the main appeal here, it's the music — soaring, uptempo soul of the best possible kind — the kind of lost cuts that go way past Motown, and way past hit soul of the 60s — showing off singers who really hit their stride when they're away from the limelight, including a few who were hitting bigger fame a few years before. The sweeter side of the James Brown galaxy of soul — and a great new entry into this series!

Unlike previous volumes of "Nothing But", which focused on obscure funk produced by James Brown — this collection showcases mellower soul recorded by The Godfather, most of which have backings from The JBs, but vocals by a range of different singers! A rip roaring blast of late 50s and early 60s rockabilly and early rockers — with some rare cuts by legendary names, others singers and bands that are familiar proto rock collectors only, and few straight up obscurities — all of it of great!

LP, Vinyl record album White vinyl pressing. An overlooked source of soul from the west coast scene — rough-edged material recorded by the small Downey family of labels — a company that's mostly known for its bigger hits in rock and roll at the time!

A number of these tracks circulated as singles back in the day, but far more were lost to the shifting sands of time — and either appear here for the first time, or saw brief release in later years since their recording — certainly never in a format this well-done.

The package features a whopping 26 tracks in all — plus detailed notes on the legendary Downey studios and store, and the unique story of the music as well. Way more than the usual 80s grooves — as the set definitely takes the " rare " in its title seriously, and presents a huge amount of cuts that were even new to our boogie-trained ears! The set's not the usual electro soul or post-disco material — and instead, really moves around some great territory in the realm of 80s soul — no hip hop or house, but some wonderful material that comes from a range of indie labels, and never got much exposure at the time!

CD Out of print, CDr release. There's lots of work here that matches the raw power of more famous tracks from labels like King, Fire, or Sue Records at the time — but most of the cuts here are nicely obscure, which really makes the collection a great one for fans of raw soul!

A stunning entry into one of the best Christmas collections ever — a rock-solid collection of rare Holiday funk and soul singles from back in the day — almost all of which we'd never heard before! Tramp Records are already great when it comes to normal funk reissues — but these guys really knock it out of the park when it comes to Christmas — and come up with these killer funky numbers that would still sound great during the 11 other months of the year, but which also bring a sublime sound to our stereos in December!

LP, Vinyl record album Includes download! Limited to copies, too. An excellent collection of tight modern soul and funky uptempo numbers — cuts that aren't really disco, but which are smoother than the usual funk you'd hear on the Jazzman label — a really unique hybrid that's hand-picked by the mighty Fryer! Lots of the grooves here have a cool indie feel — a bit like Fantasy Records funky soul of the late 70s, and a bit like some of the more soulful club of the east coast scene at the time — and given the tightness of the instrumentation, there's often some nice jazzy touches in the mix — making some of the solos as appealing as the vocals!

Classic funk and soul — served up here in a mighty sweet set that offers up a lot of less familiar numbers! Many of the artists here are names you'll know, but they're represented by a great array of well-chosen cuts that dig even deeper in their catalogs — moving past the hits, and finding some overlooked gems from the 60s and 70s — which are mixed with just a few more contemporary numbers that match the classic vibe! One of the best-ever compilations of funky work from BGP Records — and even better than their other Super Breaks sets!

This one features some totally rare killers — not only from hard-to-find funky 45s, but also from obscure studio tapes that have never been properly issued! Heavy funk galore — and easily one of the best titles in the massive Super Funk series! This one seems to go deeper than all the previous volumes — really digging down for some obscure tracks that push past the obvious funky 45 standards, to include some lost gems from rare sources in the southern scene! The set's awash in hard drums, fuzzy bass, tripped out guitar, and lots of rootsy deep soul vocals — stepping from track to track with a quality level that beats most other funky 45 collections on the market, made even better by some superb liner notes from compiler Dean Rudland!

CD Out of print CDr. CD Out of print CDr pressing. LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a cut corner. Heavy rock and heavy drums — a fuzzed out classic that's one of the best lost hard rock albums of the 70s!

These guys may have been a strange choice for Motown's rock-based Rare Earth label back in the day, but they've more than made a place for themselves in the history books — thanks to some really fierce rocking, and an approach to the drums that's kept the record in more than a few crates over the years — not totally a break record, but with plenty of tight work on the drums and some really monster bass! An excellent batch of funky rock from The Sunday Funnies — a group we only know from this album, but who have the distinction of being produced by the great Andrew Oldham!

The set's got a feel that's in keeping with the sound of Motown's Rare Earth label — well-crafted and jamming work, done in a style that's a bit more soulful than the average hard rock record of the time — nice currents of funk in the rhythms, and a fuzzy groove th at has that label's legacy of easily stepping over different modes, but in a very cohesive way.

The songwriting's especially nice — and the group have a really full-on Detroit sound in their guitars — and the album's dedicated to an unusual batch of heroes who include Arthur C Clarke, Kahil Gibran, Herman Hesse, Pieter Bruegel, and Johnny Carson. LP, Vinyl record album Cover has light wear. A much-needed look at the untapped musical legacy of Eden Ahbez — the west coast mystic who's best remembered for delivering the song "Nature Boy" to Nat King Cole legendarily walking in barefooted during a recording session!

Apart from "Nature Boy", and Ahbez's rare Eden's Island album from , most of his other songs have fallen in in the shifting sands of time — but this record does a great job of digging up the best of the bunch, and presents them in a well-documented package that's much better than some of the public domain Eden Ahbez records that have hit the market. Put together by the same guy who did Exotic World Of Eden Ahbez — but with different tracks, and even better sound! The only album ever from Allspice — but a hell of an incredible soul record — and one that's kept the group's name strong with collectors and rare groove fanatics for years!

The album's on of the best Fantasy Records productions by Wayne Henderson and his At Home team — and like some of the others, is handled with a groove that's tight, yet plenty sophisticated too — light years from mainstream disco or common club of the late 70s, and instead informed by plenty of jazz and deeper ideas as well! The vibe is perfect — as heavenly and righteous as some of the best Roy Ayers club tracks of the time — which proves to be a perfect foil for the Allspice style of mixing male and female vocals — which again is often done in an Ayers-like mode.

The sound is sublime throughout — one of those real treasures that should have been a huge record in the 70s, but was barely pressed up at all — and quickly forgotten about by the record company. Yet even after all these years, the whole thing sounds amazing — one of those albums we'd never part with at all! CD On the Dusty Groove label. A rare American release by this group from Rhodesia — with lots of percussion alongside the vocals! LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a split bottom seam.

The best track, though, is her groovy version of "Feelin' Good", which is taken at a nice up-tempo groove. LP, Vinyl record album Stereo pressing. Cover has a cutout notch. A dream of a record if you love America as much as us — a set of rare early demo tracks that show the group's harmony charms in a wonderfully stripped-down mode! Most of the work here features acoustic guitar and just a bit of added instrumentation — yet the songs are maybe just as heavenly as the trio's famous studio sides produced by George Martin at the time — lean magic that completely reinvented the role of the harmony voice in rock music for the 70s!

A few of these tracks were issued on CD in recent years, but lots of the work here is previously unissued — and together, the whole thing feels like this lost album from the years before their big label fame — the kind of indie roots the group never had, presented here with sound that's way more superb than you might expect from the "home recordings" in the title.

The first-ever issue of material recorded in Chicago in — a rare session by pianist Dodo Marmarosa, one that was to be his last on earth! Dodo's working with a trio that includes Sam Jones on bass and Marshall Thompson on drums — in a sad, almost bluesy style that's a wonderful maturation of ideas he was expressing during his bop years, and which is similar to his last album on Argo. Ammons joins in on tenor sax for about half the tracks on the session, and the material is presented here with a good set of liner notes that opens up a good bit of history on Dodo.

Rare funk from the Indy scene of the early 70s — the long-overdue release of material recorded by a really hard-jamming, horn-heavy combo! There's actually a lot more Detroit going on in the work than Indy — but the horns also have a jazzier, more open-ended quality too — not just parts penned for simple funky rhythms, but ones that show some influence from the more righteous side of the jazz spectrum.

The material was all recorded on two dates in — but only issued here for the first time — and together, the tracks are a great example of a hip group from the underground, really letting loose with a great sense of freedom. LP, Vinyl record album Available again after a a few years out of print!

It's been a decade since the last album as a leader from trombonist Clifton Anderson, but it's definitely been worth the wait — as the player has matured wonderfully over the years, working often with Sonny Rollins, and really finding his sense of space and soul! Anderson's got a very well-developed sound here — one that should easily make him one of the modern greats on his instrument, and one of the few to live up to a legacy started by players like JJ Johnson or Curtis Fuller many years back — tightly inventive improvisation on the trombone, creatively searching for new avenues of expression while also managing to always make things swing!

That balance is a rare one, but Anderson's definitely got it — and he's helped ably by group mates who include Kenny Garrett on alto, Eric Wyatt on trenor, Larry Williss on piano, Bob Cranshaw on bass, and Al Foster on drums.

An incredible record from the glory days of Flying Dutchman! The session's one of a rare few cut by electronic musician Jon Appleton, and it's a stunning blend of analogue electronics and sonic cut up material — a record of musique concrete compositions to rival the greatest work coming out of France in the late 50s and early 60s!

Appleton's approach to the material is at some level like that of Pierre Henry, but at another level, he's also using some bits of late 60s Americana — such as a Chef Boyardee commercial, or snippets of interviews done in an airport — and it's elements like these that give the set a darkness that makes it even more compelling.

A fantastic record — and a really mindblowing mix of spiritual jazz and electronics! The set is an amazing collaboration between trumpeter Don Cherry and pioneering electronic musician Jon Appleton — one of those rare meetings of the minds that goes far deeper than you'd expect! On the set, Cherry's trumpet, flute, and percussion is heavily processed by Appleton — often in ways that are organic enough to keep with Cherry's other experiments of the time, and with the "Human Music" title of the set — but sometimes with the more playful feel of Appleton's other music from the time.

The mix of electronics and improvisation is amazing — years ahead of its time, and with a haunting sound that works perfectly against Cherry's style of restrained spiritualism. The bonus tracks are "Jon" and "Don". A different combo than usual for the German scene of the early 70s — a group who were maybe a bit more straightforward than some of their Krautrock contemporaries — really working some great hard rock fuzz on their solos, alongside a female lead singer who's got a pretty bold style!

This debut set was originally pressed by the band themselves, in a print run of only copies — and got little play outside of the Bonn scene which they called their home. All these many years later, it's a lost hard rock nugget that really stands apart on its own — with tracks that include "Student's Idyll", "Outcasted", "Jeff The Fool", and the twenty minute " Rare Girl".

Despite the fact that this one yielded the super-huge hits "Windy" and "Never My Love", the album's also filled with great 60s pop tunes that you've probably never heard before — all as fantastically well-crafted and delicately strung-out as the big hits.

other nice

Arts and Crafts 44 4. The Model 4 as Teacher 61 5. Tapping into the World: Word Processing 8. Business Applications 9. The Model 4's Programming Languages We attended schools that had no courses on computers, and we took jobs that did not require us to deal with one.

Things have changed very quickly, how- ever. Computers are on many Christmas lists today be- cause many of the models play great video games. They are more and more common in the nation's classrooms, and an increasing number of professional and technical workers use computers in their jobs.

The computer is a versatile machine that can do many different jobs and provide hours of fun. Computers don't do all that automatically, however. Before a computer balances your checkbook or helps you beat back invading hordes of space no-good-niks, you will have to learn a bit about how it works and what it can do. The new computer owner generally finds there are many different ways of getting the computer to do a particular job. For example, you can buy at least ten good programs for the TRS Model 4 that help you balance your checkbook.

Several word processing programs are available for the Model 4. Nobody will want to buy all of them, but it is often difficult for someone new to computers to select the most suitable programs for a particular application. This book should help you make good decisions. The major difference is in the amount of material that you see on the screen at one time. We assume the reader is relatively new to computers and would like to know a lot more about what the TRS- 80 Model 4 can do at the office, home, and school.

Each chapter in Things To Do with Your TRS Model 4 Computer introduces you to one area of computer appli- cation, provides some general information most con- sumers need, and then gives some detailed information on the products available in that area.

The book is written in a format that allows you to skip around as much as you like. If you are interested in video games, for ex- ample, it is not necessary to read the chapter on business applications.

Here is a list of the chapters and a short description of their content: Introducing the TRS Model 4. Explains what a personal computer is, explains what soft- ware is, and introduces you to the TRS Model 4. Tells about the various recreational uses of the computer, with Introducing the TRS Model 4 3 an emphasis on video games. It includes reviews of many of the most popular games.

The Model 4 is not a great music machine and doesn't have color graph- ics. But there are some useful music and visual arts pro- grams. You may not become a modern day Van Gogh or Bach, but there is more artistic potential in the com- puter than you might expect.

It is more than a number cruncher! The Model 4 as Teacher. Deals with two aspects of educational computing: Over a thousand programs for the TRS Model 4 teach everything from grammar to algebra. In addition, many books and pro- grams that can help you become computer literate on the TRS Model 4 are described. The time it takes to keep track of family finances can be cut drastically by computerizing some of these tasks. Several programs for the TRS Model 4 can help you with home finance and record keeping.

Did you know the TRS Model 4 sitting on your kitchen table can be used to connect you to computers all over the world? You can get all sorts of information, from Italian train schedules to reviews of the latest movies.

This chapter shows you how. The TRS Model 4 is a very good computer for both home and professional or business word processing. With the right programs, a good printer, and some practice, your Model 4 can rival word processing systems that cost four or five times as much.

A brief overview of the ways a computer can be used on the job, concluding with a description of some of the business software available. The Model 4's Programming Lan- guages. The final chapter deals with accessories such as disk drives, printers, plotters, extra memory, and more. The Computer Revolution Even if we wanted to, it would be hard to avoid news- paper, television, and magazine coverage of the current computer revolution.

Articles in everything from TV Guide to Playboy explain what is happening. We are told that several billion dollars of computer equipment will be purchased this year for use in offices, homes, and schools. Many articles imply, either directly or indirectly, that if we are not already computer literate we are behind. Ads in recent issues of Business Week tell the executive that Introducing the TRS Model 4 5 other executives have computers on their desks.

The ex- ecutive without one is thus at a disadvantage. An ad with a similar message appeared frequently dur- ing the Christmas season a few years ago. Sponsored by Radio Shack, the manufacturer of the Model 4, the mes- sage was that all good parents were buying their children home computers that year because the future belongs to kids who understand computers.

Such scare tactics are used in virtually every market today. Those who ignore computers, we are told, will be at a disadvantage in the near future. We feel this approach to creating interest in computers often has the wrong impact.

Don't buy a computer because other people are; buy one because you can see uses for it that interest you. With all the media coverage and the psychological pressure to keep up with neighbors and colleagues, most people approach computers with cautious interest mixed with apprehension and perhaps fear.

We are filled with questions. Will I be able to learn how to use these new devices? How will they change my work? Are they really worth the money for home use? How do I make an in- telligent decision about what to buy? Are they simply a fad that will pass, or are they a permanent part of our lives?

Computers are a permanent part of our lives. They have changed the way we do things, and they will produce even more changes in the near future. Only a few things have produced such revolutionary changes — events such as the industrial revolution, the invention of the auto- mobile, and the development of wireless communication technology.

None of these changes were embraced with open arms by everyone. We like stability and are often un- comfortable with change, particularly rapid change. We need time to adjust, to become familiar with new things. Computer technology has not permitted us the luxury of time to accept it. Technology can move faster than we can. And it has forced itself upon us as a brash, largely untried newcomer that competes for our attention, our dollars, and our affection.

They edge their way onto our office desks, and show up on the workbench in the shop; they sit smugly on the desk in our classrooms, and they insist on a place of honor beside the television and the stereo in our homes. Few inventions have come into our lives from so many directions at once. The history of computing has not helped most of us to accept computers. Early systems were gigantic, ex- pensive devices operated by highly-trained technicians who wanted to keep the secrets of the computer to them- selves.

If we used computers before the advent of the personal computer, it was probably indirectly. Before personal computers, ordinary people like you and me did not talk directly to the computer.

Instead we told one of the experts what we needed the computer to do. Then the expert talked to the computer and let us know what it said. This approach could be called the high priest approach to computers. As in ancient Greece, ordinary mortals did not converse directly with the gods. Instead, they talked to a priest who then talked to a god and passed on any reply to the ordinary mortal.

Until recently the high priest approach was the only way most of us could interact with a computer. Two developments that began in the sixties revolu- tionized the field of computers.

These LSI circuits are the foundation of personal computers today. It would have been possible to build the TRS Model 4 computer in the fifties, but it would have been made of vacuum tubes, capacitors, resistors, and relays and would have filled a room at least thirty feet square and cost several million dollars.

LSI technology alone could not have produced the current level of computer interest. Even small computers can be difficult to operate without extensive training. In the eighties we are in the midst of another dramatic de- velopment: In the days before personal computers, most of the people who worked directly with a computer had exten- sive training.

Computers in those days were a lot like the early automobiles. The driver needed a good understanding of how the car operated, as well as an ability to diagnose problems and perform repairs. Early personal computers carried over this approach, with disastrous results.

Personal computers are for people who, while perhaps highly trained in other fields, do not have extensive computer backgrounds. The term "user- friendly" was coined to describe computers, programs, and manuals developed for this group of computer users. When the user- friendly revolution is complete, we will have small, inexpensive, powerful computers developed with you and me, the non-computer scientist, in mind.

The TRS Model 4 is not a completely user-friendly computer, but it is a vast improvement over the first and second generation personal computers. You can still find some cryptic passages in manuals, bugs in the programs that cause unexpected results, and programs that are dif- ficult to follow. However, we are to a point where com- puters are useful, relatively friendly devices that let us have more fun, do more work, and become more efficient in the way we use our time.

Before moving on to a discussion of the TRS Model 4 and its parts, we would like to discuss the type of computer user you may want to become. Many people think using a computer involves learning to write pro- grams for the machine. That is one thing you can do, but well over eight-five percent of the people who use a personal computer never write a single program. Here are some categories of users: Program User If you are a program user, you learn how to run several programs that are useful.

You'll know how to turn on Introducing the TRS Model 4 9 the machine, run the programs, and deal with minor prob- lems. It takes a few days of effort to become a good program user. Informed User If you become an informed user, you will do all the program user does, but also learn more about the equip- ment available and what it will and will not do.

You'll be able to select intelligently and set up a computer and its accessories. And you'll be able to choose appropriate programs to accomplish a job or have fun. Becoming an informed user requires a few weeks of part-time effort plus some continuing reading for instance, computer magazines in areas of interest to keep current on new developments.

This book is written especially for people who want to become informed users. Adaptive User If you're an adaptive user, you can do all that the informed user can do. You'll also learn a bit about how to program a computer. You may not write complete programs, but you can modify or adapt many programs other people have written.

If a program doesn't do quite what you want it to, you can change it. You may even be able to take care of routine maintenance and set-up tasks for instance, rewiring cable to connect a new printer to the computer. Becoming an adaptive user takes sev- eral months of part-time effort, perhaps spread over a year or more.

Adaptive users generally read quite a few books on personal computing and subscribe to a number of magazines. They become interested in a particular area, like word pro- cessing, video games, or accounting, or they become devoted owners of a particular brand or model of com- puter.

These people spend a great deal of time keeping up with their own area of interest. You will want to know several of these people because they are valuable re- sources. If you become a model or area expert, plan to make a considerable, and continuing, investment of time. You can program a computer in at least one language like BASIC or Pascal and can start with a blank piece of paper or a blank video display screen and end up with a complete program.

Becoming a hacker requires lots of time and an emotional attachment to computers that goes beyond viewing them as useful tools. Many hackers have gone on to full-time jobs in the computer industry. Several have become millionaires because the skills they have are in short supply. The opportunities for talented hackers is almost unlimited. Some have written video games that sold hundreds of thousands of copies; others have de- veloped business programs that became very popular.

Elitists in the personal computer field, particularly those whose training happens to be in computer science or engineering, tend to look down on people who are not programmers that is, hackers. But don't be intimidated by hackers who try to question your worthiness in the computer world. Wanting to use the computer for a par- ticular job or for playing games is perfectly acceptable. You don't have to fall in love with the thing or spend Introducing the TRS Model 4 1 1 most of your weekends slouched over a keyboard.

Select the level of use and involvement that fits your needs and go to it! Using a personal computer like the TRS Model 4 can take as little or as much of your time as you want. However, we feel that some under- standing of the Model 4 and its components is helpful, especially if you are thinking of buying accessories.

That is, if you understand one of the languages the TRS Model 4 understands, you can develop a set of instructions for the computer. When you tell the TRS Model 4 to execute the instructions you type in, it loads the electronic signals that represent your instructions into a special section of its memory and performs the operations associated with each instruction. The programs you buy and use on the Model 4 are really sets of instructions written by programmers. Sets of instructions that do a particular job, such as play a fast game of blackjack, are called programs.

The general term software is used to refer to computer programs. You can either write or purchase software, or computer programs. Store-bought software comes in several dif- ferent forms. Much of the video game software for the TRS Model 4 is available on cassette. Cassette soft- ware is no more than the electronic codes that represent instructions recorded in much the same way music is recorded. The TRS Model 4 can listen, electronically speaking, to the signals on the cassette and convert the signals into instructions that are stored in memory.

If you buy a program that comes on a cassette, you must load the program into the memory of the computer through a cassette recorder, then tell the computer to execute those instructions.

Another way you can buy software is on a disk. Disks are flexible platters of coated mylar plastic enclosed in a protective envelope. Disks look a lot like 45 RPM records. The coating on these disks is magnetic. A special device called a disk drive can record or read information stored on the surface. Introducing the TRS Model 4 13 If you learn to program the TRS Model 4, you can use a cassette recorder or disk drive to make a permanent copy of your programs for later use.

A computer is tremendously versatile because it un- derstands and uses thousands of different programs. The computer is not at all prejudiced about what it does.

If you write or buy a program that helps you keep an up- to-date list of your family possessions for insurance pur- poses, the computer will execute that program just as happily as it executes the instructions of your teenager's favorite video game program. Software is what makes a computer versatile. Hard- ware, the nuts and bolts of the computer, is what most of us think of when we talk about computers. It converts the volt AC house current into direct current DC voltage.

Most of the internal circuits operate on 5 volts DC although some circuits have to have 12 volts DC. If a computer is to be of any use, it must be able to receive information and communicate back to you. The TRS- 80 Model 4 has several ports that allow you to com- municate with it.

The keyboard is your primary means of giving infor- mation and instructions to the computer. Each key has a unique signal or code that is sent to the com- puter. The Model 4 interprets the signals it gets from the keyboard as instructions to do something for example, pressing the CLEAR key deletes everything from the screen or as codes for a letter, number, or graphics symbol. The keyboard on the TRS Model 4 is a very good one, particularly compared with the keyboards on other computers in its price range.

It connects to the video monitor that is in the same case as the main computer circuit board. This computer displays 24 lines of text, each with up to 80 characters, on the screen. The by format is a very good one for business and professional uses. The Model 4's biggest competitor, the Apple He, has a line by character display. How- ever, the Apple He has color and sound, while the Model 4 has neither.

The Model 4 uses a monochrome black and white display and has only limited graphics features. That makes it less satisfactory for video games. Most Model 4 buyers make business, professional, or home finance applications their first priority, rather than rec- reational uses like video games.

The second means of output is a printer. All you need to do is buy a printer that uses a parallel interface, a special cable, and plug it in. With a keyboard, a printer, and a video display you can communicate with your computer and it with you.

You also need some way for the computer to commu- nicate with itself. For example, it sometimes needs to store data in a safe place and then retrieve it later. Com- Introducing the TRS Model 4 1 5 puter-to-computer communication is done with a cassette interface or with disk drives. The computer can store data or programs on a cassette or disk and then retrieve it anytime you tell it to. If you haven't done so already, you may want to buy a cassette recorder or disk drives for your Model 4.

Storing information on a cassette or disk is sometimes called mass storage. Another form of computer-to-computer communication called telecom- munications is discussed in a later chapter.

Memory When you press a key on the keyboard or load a pro- gram into the computer from a cassette or disk, you must have somewhere to put that information. Each letter or number you type on the keyboard is converted to a code and stored in the memory of the computer. All computers convert characters into ones and zeros on and off elec- trical signals. The letter A, for example, has the code Such a set of eight digits is called a byte, and each of the ones and zeros is called a bit.

Seven of those bits are used to define the code for each character the Model 4 understands. The eighth is usually added to the character code so the computer can check for errors. This process, called parity checking, will not be discussed here. Bytes, the eight-bit patterns, are the fundamental code units for the Model 4 and for most small computers. Memory inside the computer is also divided into bytes. One byte of memory can hold the electrical impulses that represent eight ones and zeros.

Every letter, digit, graphic symbol, and punctuation mark the Model 4 understands has a unique code of one byte eight bits. This means there is not a place in the computer where an A or B or 7 or -I- is stored. Instead, each of those symbols has its own one-byte code. There are actually two different types of memory in the Model 4: ROM stands for Read Only Memory, which is generally programmed at the factory and cannot be changed by the user.

If you have a Model 4 with disk drives, the computer follows instructions in its ROM to load programs stored on disk. All computer memory cannot be ROM, however. RAM is general-purpose memory, available for use by the computer operator. The standard Model 4 has a little over bytes of RAM. Since each byte can store the code for one character, the bytes of RAM can hold up to characters.

That is quite a bit of RAM memory. Some of its competitors come with much less RAM memory, and the manufacturers generally charge a stiff price to add extra memory. You can add a little over bytes of RAM to the Model 4, which means you have a maximum of over , bytes. RAM is also known as volatile memory. You can store data or instructions in RAM , tell the computer to use the information you've stored there, and then replace the material in RAM with something new.

You can put data in RAM write to memory and you can see what is stored there read from memory. You can only read ROM. The biggest problem with RAM is the fact that whatever is there disappears when the computer is turned off.

If you need to save something in RAM for later use, you must Introducing the TRS Model 4 17 store it on a cassette or disk before turning the computer off. Material in ROM, on the other hand, remains there essentially forever and cannot be changed or modified. Thus far we've talked about the number of bytes of memory the Model 4 has. Computer buffs generally do not talk about memory in terms of bytes, but in terms of Ks for kilobytes. Thus 16K would be times 16, or bytes.

Just mul- tiply the number of K by 1 to determine the number of bytes of memory. Although most CPUs are smaller than a half dollar, the electronic components they contain would have filled a room a few decades ago. LSI technology permits manufacturers to cram thousands of circuits into tiny silicon chips that work dependably and use less power than an electric razor.

There are several popular CPU chips today with names like Z80, , , and There are real differences among these chips, but the differences are mainly of interest to computer designers, experienced programmers, and to people who need the special capabilities of some of the chips for example, the ability to use large amounts of memory or to work very rapidly. Because the Z80 has been on the market for several years, thousands of programs have been writ- ten for computers with Z80 CPUs.

But it does make the process of converting programs to operate on other computers easier. The Model 4 can carry its weight in the office, at home, and in the classroom. It is quite a bit of computing power for the money. You signed your life away to the finance company and brought home a TRS Model 4 computer with all the accessories.

You've astounded your friends and appeased your spouse, or tried to by demonstrating how it can analyze real estate investments, improve Junior's spelling, and store your favorite recipe for chocolate-covered cabbage. That's all well and good, but now that the friends have gone home and everyone except you is in bed, it's time to get down to business. Time to put your computer through its paces and use it for something really important: Computer magazines and soft- ware catalogs are filled to overflowing with ads for game software.

They're everywhere you go these days: Several home computers can run games strikingly similar to those ar- cade games. Some experienced gamers even prefer the better small computer games over the coin-operated ar- cade ones. There's good news and bad news about playing com- puter games on the Model 4.

The good news is that you can have a lot of fun playing games on your computer. The bad news is that the TRS Model 4 is not one of the computers that can compete with the quality of arcade games. The primary reason the Model 4 does not measure up to the Coleco Adam, the ATARI, or the Apple when it comes to video games is that the Model 4 was not de- signed primarily for recreational uses.

It can't produce very high-quality color pictures called graphics by pro- grammers. If you have ever played an arcade game, you know that much of the appeal lies in the use of colorful, imaginative graphics. The Model 4 can produce some graphics, but does not have a color display. Not all com- puter games require color graphics, and you can certainly have a lot of fun playing games of all kinds on your Model 4.

But if that's your primary reason for wanting a computer, the Model 4 is not your best choice. A Word of Caution We have not attempted to review every, or even most, of the games available for the Model 4. There are too Games and Entertainment 21 many of them, and quite a few are so poor they don't deserve mention. It would take many pages to review all the bad recreational software for the Model 4, so we decided to use the space in this book to describe software we found at least acceptable, if not excellent.

Even with that limitation, we can't describe all the good software that is available. We've reviewed many of the good pro- grams to give you an idea of the types of games you can find for the Model 4.

Because the Model 4 is a new computer, most of the software available when we wrote this book was created for the Model III. These programs run on a Model 4 with no modification. By the time you read this, you may be able to buy versions written specifically to take advantage of the Model 4's new features. We came up with a system of categories but we have since found they're not as clear- cut as we originally thought.

As gaming gets more so- phisticated, the divisions between categories blur. Never- theless, we will discuss computer gaming on the TRS- 80 Model 4 computer in the following categories: Action Games Some of the most popular computer games are action games. Actually, there are several types of action games. Insiders in the computer industry sometimes refer to these games as bang-bang-shoot-' em- up games. That certainly sums it up! You spend your time zapping alien spaceships or blasting asteroids.

In other types of action games, you guide race cars around a track or play tennis or hockey. Without intricate color graphics, the Model 4 is less suited for action games than for some of the other categories.

We'll review a few action games we think you'll enjoy, then go on to other games more suited to the Model 4. It is set in the not-too-distant future; the world is at war but has realized nuclear conflict is impractical. Instead, con- ventional weapons are being used.

You are in charge of a fleet of four Rotoblasters, flying craft you can maneuver up or down, right or left, with the arrow keys on your computer. You use your Rotoblasters one at a time until each one is destroyed. You can aim and fire lasers at three Eastern Bloc Hovertanks. These ground-based craft are slow but deadly accurate as they track and fire at you. You aim your laser gun with the right and left arrow keys, arm the gun by pressing the space bar, and fire by releasing the space bar.

This is a somewhat unusual arrangement for firing and takes some getting used to, but that adds interest to the game. If one of your Rotoblasters is hit and it will be , you crash to the ground.

There must have been a little bit of kamikaze in the programmer, because even as you fall crazily to the ground, you retain right-left control and can take out a Hovertank by crashing into it. You can use a joystick instead of the arrow keys, and we definitely recommend the use of an audio amplifier, since the sound effects are really impressive in this game.

A few programmers took advantage of the cassette circuits on the computer, however, and wrote sound effects instructions in their software. Plug a small speaker into the computer through one of the cassette recorder cables, and you'll get sounds in quadraphonic stereo that aren't bad. The graphics in this program are better than average, and the game is fast with three skill levels.

At the harder skill levels, the Hovertanks fire more quickly and more accurately. It is very much like the arcade game called Asteroids, but without color graphics or sound effects. If you're familiar with the Asteroids arcade game, you know the basic dilemma. Your ship is in a gigantic as- teroid field. To play the game, you move the ship or fire Games and Entertainment 25 your laser to avoid colliding with the moving asteroids.

You earn points by destroying asteroids, with the smaller asteroids worth more points than the larger ones. Just to make things a little more uncomfortable for you, while all this is going on, a variety of enemy space- ships try to shoot you; you have to get them first. You can control your ship by rotating it, firing its engines, or escaping to hyperspace, which should be your last resort: You may find yourself in a worse fix than before you went in!

The game gets more and more difficult as it goes on. Asteroids and enemy ships come faster and faster, and the enemy ships fire more and more shots at you. If you survive long enough to pile up a score of 90, or more, consider yourself an expert.

If things get too tough, you can stop the action tem- porarily. Several other options include a super- fast and a super-slow action mode, and modes you can use to perfect your piloting and shooting skills. The arcade ver- sion of this game has been a huge success with both children and adults and continues to attract quarters. The TRS version is fast and challenging, and the graphics are about as good as you can expect to find in a Model 4 action game.

You'll be taking a chance with some games, but Planetoids is almost certain to be a hit with the whole family. Regilian Worm Regilian Worm is a good example of an action game that is a little different from the bang-bang-shoot-' em-up variety. Shoot-'em-ups are fun, but you can blast only so many thousands of enemy fleets before terminal bore- dom begins to set in.

It can be very fast, but doesn't use a single laser or guided missile. You use the arrow keys to guide the Regilian Worm around the screen so he can eat a crew of nasties known as Zansbards. As he eats each Zansbard, points mount up. The more the worm eats, the longer he grows and the harder it is to move him around the screen without running into a wall or touching his own tail.

When you do either of these things, you lose. This is a good action game with ten different speeds at each of four difficulty levels. This ensures a level for players of almost any age.

As you get better, you can increase the difficulty level and keep the play challeng- ing. Regilian Worm is a welcome new wrinkle or wiggle in the world of action gaming. Leaper Leaper is an action game similar to the popular arcade game called Frogger. In this game, you guide a frog through dangerous situations and try to reach one of six safe cubbyholes at the top of the screen.

When the game begins, you have three frogs. You must move the first one across a highway of speeding automobiles.

If you make it, the next challenge is getting the frog across a river by jumping from lily pads to logs. The only prob- lem is the lily pads may sink, or the logs may actually be hungry crocodiles. To make things a little more dif- ficult, you have only thirty seconds to guide each frog to safety.

Games and Entertainment 27 Once you get six frogs into the safe havens at the top of the screen, you earn a bonus frog and move up to the next level of difficulty. As you reach each new level, there are fewer lily pads, more crocodiles and faster and more numerous cars. Leaper is a good action game for your Model 4. It's inexpensive, interesting, and should keep your interest for quite a while as you move from easier to more difficult levels.

In this game you chase and punch a punching bag. The bag can appear at any position on the screen. You move around the screen by using the arrow keys. The game is really a test of how fast you react. Boxer lacks the complex graphics and numerous skill levels you get from expensive commercial games written by experts. On the other hand, it's fun for a short while and it has the added attraction of being free.

Boxer is typical of the free games printed in computer magazines. There's a catch, though. Before you can play Boxer, you have to type in the entire program approx- imately lines. This is time-consuming, and if you make errors, the game doesn't work right. Nevertheless, there is satisfaction in getting an enjoyable game for nothing, even if it takes some effort. If you aren't interested in typing in the program your- self, there is an alternative. Several computer magazines sell cassette tapes or diskettes containing the major pro- grams listed in each issue.

If you don't want to shell out that much money for programs you haven't seen. Load 80 is available on cassette for all issues of 80 Micro from April , 1 98 1 to the present, and on diskette from March, to the present. Load 80 cassettes and diskettes are sold without man- uals or any kind of documentation.

So you often need a copy of the 80 Micro issue that listed the program. When this chapter was written, back issues for most cop- ies since , as well as selected earlier back issues, were available. Another computer magazine dealing exclusively with TRS computers is called Basic Computing prior to July of , it was called 80 U. This magazine often publishes listings of game programs, as well as other programs, and offers them on cassette only. They can be ordered from Basic Computing.

You can also get selected back issues. Roadrace Another excellent way to buy inexpensive computer software is to buy it in book form. In this game you are at the wheel of a high-speed race Games and Entertainment 29 car winding your way along a treacherous course. The road curves unpredictably. To stay on course, you must steer accurately using the arrow keys or risk collision.

Instructions for changing the program are in the book, so you can set your own level of difficulty. If you don't want to type the program in, it is also available on disk.

Roadrace is only one of the thirty-two programs in this book, which includes educational pro- grams, several other games, and programs for home re- cord keeping and business use.

Adventure Simulations Fantasy Games Adventure simulations are strategy oriented. You must think your way through the simulation rather than act your way through. These assets are not necessary for most adventure simulations.

Many of the adventure simulations do not even have graphics displays. Instead, they rely primarily on text displayed on the screen. A game is likely to begin with a paragraph that sets the scene for the simulation: You are standing on the edge of a forest. There is a narrow winding road that leads out of the forest.

The road winds through the hills to a large stone house, shrouded in fog, that stands on the edge of a cliff. You see a bootprint! Two final ingredients of an adventure simulation are incomplete information and ways of getting that in- formation.

That means you must begin the adventure without all the information you need. But there are ways to learn more about your surroundings and about how to succeed. In most adventures you move through a series of rooms, which refers to different segments of the sim- ulation, like cities or chambers in a cave.

The adventure may under- stand only a few instructions or several hundred. In some games you can create your own characters, can move them independently, and give them different powers. The characters can then go against foes they are likely to overcome for instance, a sorcerer against a wicked ma- gician or a powerful Samson type against a giant. Things do not always work out as you hope, though.

It is not usual to lose some of your characters in an adventure. Not everyone enjoys playing adventure simulations. Some games take several hours, even days, to learn.

Playing a complete game through to the end might take ten hours, if not longer. Because they take quite a bit of time, some let you save your position in the game. You can play for several hours today, save the game, and resume play later at the point where you stopped. If you like strategy, enjoy solving intricate puzzles, and have time to devote to the task, playing adventure games can be a pleasant addiction.

Here are some of the popular games for the Model 4. Games and Entertainment 31 Pirate Adventure A good example of this type of game is the popular series from Adventure International written by Scott Ad- ams, one of the most famous authors of adventure games. Pirate Adventure is one of these. In it you are searching for clues to the whereabouts of Long John Silver's trea- sure, which is hidden somewhere on a strange island. Once you find a map of the island, you can begin using some of the items you have been given to help you find the treasure.

This is a text-only game — there are no graphics. As you move through the adventure, the screen describes what is happening to you. The Adams Adventure series has adventures for be- ginners, those with moderate skill, and advanced players. Pirate Adventure is for beginners. Text-only adventure games require logic and patience beyond most children and many adults and are really not appropriate for most children younger than thirteen or so. Voyage of the Valkyrie Recently, another type of fantasy or adventure game has emerged — one that still relies on magic, demons, and wizards, but also uses detailed graphics and some- times sound.

It may be representative of the wave of the future in fantasy-ad- venture games. It has some characteristics of classic ac- tion games and some aspects of the typical fantasy games. Finding the castles is difficult enough in itself, and takes up the first part of this game.

This part of the game is similar to the classic fantasy-adventure game. All sorts of perils lie in wait as you conduct your search. The game comes with over ten pages of instructions and an assortment of maps of Fug- loy. If you find your way to a castle, you must attack it. The castles are defended by flocks of birds that try to crash into you and kill you. You must use your number keys to center crosshairs on each one before firing. Since the castles are located on islands, you must return to your base periodically to refuel.

There are ten levels of dif- ficulty in Voyage of the Valkyrie. As the game gets harder, there are more crazy birds. This means you have to use more fuel. If you run out of fuel over the ocean, you're a goner. In the second part, the play is much more like an action game. In fact, this part of the game is similar to the bang- bang-shoot-' em-up variety found in arcades.

Graphics are obviously important, and they are quite good. Sound effects, including music, are included for those who have an audio amplifier. As we mentioned before, fantasy games have tradi- tionally depended more on strategy and logic and less on fine muscle coordination and quick reactions.

However, we suspect that many future games will, like Voyage of the Valkyrie, merge some of the aspects of action games with fantasy games. Fantasy games will probably con- tinue to appeal mostly to older children and adults, be- cause of the logic required. Games and Entertainment 33 Simulations Simulation games are designed to mirror real-life or make-believe experiences, like flying an airplane or run- ning a large corporation.

Some computerized simulations actually do help people prepare for real experiences. The ones we discuss here are generally fun, but several also have considerable educational potential.

Oil Tycoon Oil Tycoon is a popular simulation program for the Model 4 computer. In this game, two players get into the oil drilling business and play until one earns several million dollars in profits or goes bankrupt. This is a text-only simulation. At the beginning of each game you are asked to name the two companies that compete against each other. The first display is a table of information about each company. The beginning total net worth of each company is the same as that company's cash holdings: The table lists other infor- mation such as number of wells, oil flow in barrels, oil reserves, oil sales, net oil profit, percent of return on initial investment, and current drill depth.

These read at the beginning of the game, since no drilling or other business activity has taken place. As in real life, you can't drill without exploring first.

The more money you put into research and development, the better your chances of striking oil, and the cheaper your drilling costs. After the geology report is displayed, you are asked if you want to drill the well.

Only one well can be drilled at a time so you must weigh the cost of drilling and the likelihood of a dry hole against your cash reserves and the potential profit.

If you choose to drill, the drill depth is feet for each turn. The program then presents your opponent with similar choices on a different tract of land. The game can continue for hours, and you will soon find that it is more sophisticated than it may seem at first glance.

Once you bring in several wells if you're lucky enough to do that without going bankrupt , you can afford to take extra chances and invest more capital in research and development.

If you've drilled a few good wells, your capital increases with each turn as the oil continues to flow in. You may be tempted to start a price war with your opponent, but remember that as you cut prices, you will also be cutting your own incoming revenue.

Can you last longer than your opponent? That depends partly on your respective financial conditions. But it also depends on some uncontrollable variables that can sneak up and get you! Oil spills and well blowouts can occur at any time. These can spell disaster for you or your opponent, es- Games and Entertainment 35 pecially if either one of you is in financial deep water.

This is an excellent text-only simulation that can be enjoyed at many different levels. Although children aren't generally as turned on by text-only simulations as they are by games that have fancy graphics, some children enjoy Oil Tycoon.

It has the added benefit of teaching something about business in general and the oil business in particular. Deadline Deadline, a unique game from Infocom, is widely available and has been adapted for many popular com- puters. Actually, we could have discussed this game in the fantasy-adventure category, but we really couldn't decide where to put it.

It is an adventure, but in a sense it's also a simulation. It's a simulation of a detective's work, and it's really fun! It is a text-only game, but it's head and shoulders above the early text-only games. Tra- ditionally, text-only computer games for microcomputers could understand, at best, only two- word sentences con- taining a verb and a noun. It can be terribly frustrating to continue to ask the same question in as many different two-word combinations as you can think of, only to have the program continue to tell you it doesn't understand your question.

What makes Deadline so much fun is the way it can understand so many different things you type in. You aren't restricted to two-word commands. Of course, you can't talk to this program as you would to a friend, but its ability to understand a variety of commands and sentence struc- tures is truly amazing!

Marshall Robner, millionaire industrialist and philanthropist. Robner was found dead on the floor of his library, the victim of an apparent overdose of a drug he had been taking. The door was locked from the inside. Robner had experienced re- cent business setbacks and had been suffering from severe bouts of depression.

It seems to be an open-and-shut case of suicide. It's up to you to find out. You are a private detective and you have been hired by Robner' s attorney to investigate this presumed suicide.

The attorney is convinced there is no foul play, but he feels an investigation is in order since Robner was in the process of changing his will when he died. Robner is reluctant to cooperate, but grudgingly agrees to let you spend one day in the Robner mansion.

Therefore, you have a deadline of one day to complete your investigation and solve the case. Each turn consumes one minute, and a line at the top of the screen tells you how much time you have left.

You are free to move around the Robner mansion and examine anything or anybody you please. At first, the people you meet seem ordinary enough, but are they? Robner, who was frequently visited by gentlemen callers and who is obviously NOT grief stricken over her husband's death. Then there is Ms. Dunbar, Robner's personal secretary, who seems to have been unusually close to Robner.

And George, the spoiled son who often quarrelled with his father. You wonder too about Mr. Baxter, Robner's business partner. He may have more to gain from Robner's death than anyone suspects.

There is also Mrs. Rourke, the house- keeper, who seems innocent enough. She manages, though, to take an unnatural interest in the personal affairs of everyone in the Robner household. There are other characters as well. Meanwhile, the clock ticks on. This is an elegant game, beautifully and artfully pack- aged. It comes complete with a letter of employment from Robner's attorney, a coroner's report, a photo of the death scene, a crime lab analysis of the teacup, a police report, a transcript of interviews with all the people concerned with the case, and even three of the "deadly pills" found near the body.

A fine manual explains how to play the game and how to talk to the program in language it understands. It takes most people about twenty hours to complete this game, which can be saved at any point and resumed at a later time. Deadline was one of our favorite pro- grams. Anyone who enjoys mysteries will love this In- focom game. It sets a new standard for text-only games. Roger's colonial ancestors kang on one wall. Ob one of the talles is a telephone.

Miner is sitting here, knitting. From Deadline Games and Entertainment 39 Fig 2. Instant Soft- ware markets a number of flight simulations that are realistic and fun.

In Mountain Pilot you must fly your plane over a mountain. O'Hare puts you in charge of the control tower at a busy airport where you must direct twenty planes to a safe landing. Two excellent simulations are available from Sublogic Communications Corporation.

Flight Simulator gives you a startlingly realistic out-the-window view from an air- craft. The program is more than a toy and can be enjoyed by beginners as well as by seasoned pilots. The dis- kette program is superior, by the way. In some games you just play the game, while others train you to play.

Still others do both. Board Games Another staple of computer games are programs that are like the various board games. The chess programs are quite well developed, but even with all of modern technology, no one has managed to come up with a chess program equal to a true chess master. It's challenging for both novices and ad- vanced players. As you play games that have been played by chess masters, your moves are analyzed and corrected by the program.

Each disk con- tains four games, and you can purchase additional disks as you need them. There are ten skill levels to choose from.

The program has seven different skill levels. Sports Games There are many sports games available for your com- puter. These games are suitable for both children and adults, but they do assume a knowledge of the rules of each game.

The football game is on diskette and allows you to play against a friend or the computer. One player enters offensive plays, the other defensive plays, and the com- puter displays the result. Computer Statis Pro Baseball is also a one- or two- player game and allows you to assume the role of coach of any major league team for any season since A number of these tracks circulated as singles back in the day, but far more were lost to the shifting sands of time — and either appear here for the first time, or saw brief release in later years since their recording — certainly never in a format this well-done.

The package features a whopping 26 tracks in all — plus detailed notes on the legendary Downey studios and store, and the unique story of the music as well. Way more than the usual 80s grooves — as the set definitely takes the " rare " in its title seriously, and presents a huge amount of cuts that were even new to our boogie-trained ears! The set's not the usual electro soul or post-disco material — and instead, really moves around some great territory in the realm of 80s soul — no hip hop or house, but some wonderful material that comes from a range of indie labels, and never got much exposure at the time!

CD Out of print, CDr release. There's lots of work here that matches the raw power of more famous tracks from labels like King, Fire, or Sue Records at the time — but most of the cuts here are nicely obscure, which really makes the collection a great one for fans of raw soul! A stunning entry into one of the best Christmas collections ever — a rock-solid collection of rare Holiday funk and soul singles from back in the day — almost all of which we'd never heard before!

Tramp Records are already great when it comes to normal funk reissues — but these guys really knock it out of the park when it comes to Christmas — and come up with these killer funky numbers that would still sound great during the 11 other months of the year, but which also bring a sublime sound to our stereos in December! LP, Vinyl record album Includes download! Limited to copies, too. An excellent collection of tight modern soul and funky uptempo numbers — cuts that aren't really disco, but which are smoother than the usual funk you'd hear on the Jazzman label — a really unique hybrid that's hand-picked by the mighty Fryer!

Lots of the grooves here have a cool indie feel — a bit like Fantasy Records funky soul of the late 70s, and a bit like some of the more soulful club of the east coast scene at the time — and given the tightness of the instrumentation, there's often some nice jazzy touches in the mix — making some of the solos as appealing as the vocals!

Classic funk and soul — served up here in a mighty sweet set that offers up a lot of less familiar numbers! Many of the artists here are names you'll know, but they're represented by a great array of well-chosen cuts that dig even deeper in their catalogs — moving past the hits, and finding some overlooked gems from the 60s and 70s — which are mixed with just a few more contemporary numbers that match the classic vibe!

One of the best-ever compilations of funky work from BGP Records — and even better than their other Super Breaks sets! This one features some totally rare killers — not only from hard-to-find funky 45s, but also from obscure studio tapes that have never been properly issued! Heavy funk galore — and easily one of the best titles in the massive Super Funk series! This one seems to go deeper than all the previous volumes — really digging down for some obscure tracks that push past the obvious funky 45 standards, to include some lost gems from rare sources in the southern scene!

The set's awash in hard drums, fuzzy bass, tripped out guitar, and lots of rootsy deep soul vocals — stepping from track to track with a quality level that beats most other funky 45 collections on the market, made even better by some superb liner notes from compiler Dean Rudland!

CD Out of print CDr. CD Out of print CDr pressing. LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a cut corner. Heavy rock and heavy drums — a fuzzed out classic that's one of the best lost hard rock albums of the 70s!

These guys may have been a strange choice for Motown's rock-based Rare Earth label back in the day, but they've more than made a place for themselves in the history books — thanks to some really fierce rocking, and an approach to the drums that's kept the record in more than a few crates over the years — not totally a break record, but with plenty of tight work on the drums and some really monster bass!

An excellent batch of funky rock from The Sunday Funnies — a group we only know from this album, but who have the distinction of being produced by the great Andrew Oldham! The set's got a feel that's in keeping with the sound of Motown's Rare Earth label — well-crafted and jamming work, done in a style that's a bit more soulful than the average hard rock record of the time — nice currents of funk in the rhythms, and a fuzzy groove th at has that label's legacy of easily stepping over different modes, but in a very cohesive way.

The songwriting's especially nice — and the group have a really full-on Detroit sound in their guitars — and the album's dedicated to an unusual batch of heroes who include Arthur C Clarke, Kahil Gibran, Herman Hesse, Pieter Bruegel, and Johnny Carson. LP, Vinyl record album Cover has light wear. A much-needed look at the untapped musical legacy of Eden Ahbez — the west coast mystic who's best remembered for delivering the song "Nature Boy" to Nat King Cole legendarily walking in barefooted during a recording session!

Apart from "Nature Boy", and Ahbez's rare Eden's Island album from , most of his other songs have fallen in in the shifting sands of time — but this record does a great job of digging up the best of the bunch, and presents them in a well-documented package that's much better than some of the public domain Eden Ahbez records that have hit the market. Put together by the same guy who did Exotic World Of Eden Ahbez — but with different tracks, and even better sound! The only album ever from Allspice — but a hell of an incredible soul record — and one that's kept the group's name strong with collectors and rare groove fanatics for years!

The album's on of the best Fantasy Records productions by Wayne Henderson and his At Home team — and like some of the others, is handled with a groove that's tight, yet plenty sophisticated too — light years from mainstream disco or common club of the late 70s, and instead informed by plenty of jazz and deeper ideas as well!

The vibe is perfect — as heavenly and righteous as some of the best Roy Ayers club tracks of the time — which proves to be a perfect foil for the Allspice style of mixing male and female vocals — which again is often done in an Ayers-like mode.

The sound is sublime throughout — one of those real treasures that should have been a huge record in the 70s, but was barely pressed up at all — and quickly forgotten about by the record company.

Yet even after all these years, the whole thing sounds amazing — one of those albums we'd never part with at all! CD On the Dusty Groove label.

A rare American release by this group from Rhodesia — with lots of percussion alongside the vocals! LP, Vinyl record album Cover has a split bottom seam. The best track, though, is her groovy version of "Feelin' Good", which is taken at a nice up-tempo groove. LP, Vinyl record album Stereo pressing. Cover has a cutout notch. A dream of a record if you love America as much as us — a set of rare early demo tracks that show the group's harmony charms in a wonderfully stripped-down mode!

Most of the work here features acoustic guitar and just a bit of added instrumentation — yet the songs are maybe just as heavenly as the trio's famous studio sides produced by George Martin at the time — lean magic that completely reinvented the role of the harmony voice in rock music for the 70s! A few of these tracks were issued on CD in recent years, but lots of the work here is previously unissued — and together, the whole thing feels like this lost album from the years before their big label fame — the kind of indie roots the group never had, presented here with sound that's way more superb than you might expect from the "home recordings" in the title.

The first-ever issue of material recorded in Chicago in — a rare session by pianist Dodo Marmarosa, one that was to be his last on earth! Dodo's working with a trio that includes Sam Jones on bass and Marshall Thompson on drums — in a sad, almost bluesy style that's a wonderful maturation of ideas he was expressing during his bop years, and which is similar to his last album on Argo. Ammons joins in on tenor sax for about half the tracks on the session, and the material is presented here with a good set of liner notes that opens up a good bit of history on Dodo.

Rare funk from the Indy scene of the early 70s — the long-overdue release of material recorded by a really hard-jamming, horn-heavy combo! There's actually a lot more Detroit going on in the work than Indy — but the horns also have a jazzier, more open-ended quality too — not just parts penned for simple funky rhythms, but ones that show some influence from the more righteous side of the jazz spectrum.

The material was all recorded on two dates in — but only issued here for the first time — and together, the tracks are a great example of a hip group from the underground, really letting loose with a great sense of freedom. LP, Vinyl record album Available again after a a few years out of print! It's been a decade since the last album as a leader from trombonist Clifton Anderson, but it's definitely been worth the wait — as the player has matured wonderfully over the years, working often with Sonny Rollins, and really finding his sense of space and soul!

Anderson's got a very well-developed sound here — one that should easily make him one of the modern greats on his instrument, and one of the few to live up to a legacy started by players like JJ Johnson or Curtis Fuller many years back — tightly inventive improvisation on the trombone, creatively searching for new avenues of expression while also managing to always make things swing!

That balance is a rare one, but Anderson's definitely got it — and he's helped ably by group mates who include Kenny Garrett on alto, Eric Wyatt on trenor, Larry Williss on piano, Bob Cranshaw on bass, and Al Foster on drums. An incredible record from the glory days of Flying Dutchman!

The session's one of a rare few cut by electronic musician Jon Appleton, and it's a stunning blend of analogue electronics and sonic cut up material — a record of musique concrete compositions to rival the greatest work coming out of France in the late 50s and early 60s!

Appleton's approach to the material is at some level like that of Pierre Henry, but at another level, he's also using some bits of late 60s Americana — such as a Chef Boyardee commercial, or snippets of interviews done in an airport — and it's elements like these that give the set a darkness that makes it even more compelling.

A fantastic record — and a really mindblowing mix of spiritual jazz and electronics! The set is an amazing collaboration between trumpeter Don Cherry and pioneering electronic musician Jon Appleton — one of those rare meetings of the minds that goes far deeper than you'd expect! On the set, Cherry's trumpet, flute, and percussion is heavily processed by Appleton — often in ways that are organic enough to keep with Cherry's other experiments of the time, and with the "Human Music" title of the set — but sometimes with the more playful feel of Appleton's other music from the time.

The mix of electronics and improvisation is amazing — years ahead of its time, and with a haunting sound that works perfectly against Cherry's style of restrained spiritualism. The bonus tracks are "Jon" and "Don". A different combo than usual for the German scene of the early 70s — a group who were maybe a bit more straightforward than some of their Krautrock contemporaries — really working some great hard rock fuzz on their solos, alongside a female lead singer who's got a pretty bold style!

This debut set was originally pressed by the band themselves, in a print run of only copies — and got little play outside of the Bonn scene which they called their home.

All these many years later, it's a lost hard rock nugget that really stands apart on its own — with tracks that include "Student's Idyll", "Outcasted", "Jeff The Fool", and the twenty minute " Rare Girl". Despite the fact that this one yielded the super-huge hits "Windy" and "Never My Love", the album's also filled with great 60s pop tunes that you've probably never heard before — all as fantastically well-crafted and delicately strung-out as the big hits.

The Association were truly one of the greatest 60s pop harmony groups to come out of the LA scene — and even a big hit album like this is the kind of gem that you'd spend years digging through rare vinyl to hope to find! LP, Vinyl record album Limited edition 50th Anniversary pressing — mono version on red colored vinyl — in a heavy paste-on cover like the original pressing. This great expanded mono edition has 11 bonus tracks!!!

A huge run of funky soul from The Average White Band — a group who were already well above average at the start, then just got better and better as their music grew during the 70s! The package is the first we've ever seen to honor the group in this way — and includes all their important studio albums, plus lesser-known gems from later years — and 2CDs' worth of rare material too — all in a box with a special 52 page book!

This is an amazing rare album from Roy Ayers, and one that, we believe, was only ever issued in Japan!

The whole session is made up of 4 tracks, and they were recorded during the time when Roy was playing with Herbie Mann, and recording on Atlantic.

This session was cut Direct-To-Disc, and the record plays at 45 rpm for extra high fidelity! The quartet includes Sonny Sharrock on guitar, and Miroslav Vitous on bass. LP, Vinyl record album Mid 70s Denon pressing, with obi and insert. A beautiful and rare recording — both for singer Alice Babs, and Duke Ellington himself!

The session was cut in Paris in — and it's a moody, intimate album that features Duke backing up Alice with arrangements that are quieter and more subtle than those used with most other Ellington-related singers. Alice is extremely great on the set — and often sings in weird wordless vocals — not really scatting, but more of a horn based-style that's very icy and cool.

Sweet little CD that brings together 2 rare scores by Luis Bacalov, both from 60's films that involve questions of duty, honor, and violence. The soundtrack to A Ciascuno Il Suo was released in the US under the title We Still Kill The Old Way, but in an abbreviated form that doesn't include a lot of the material on this CD, including 2 extra versions of the great cut "Samba", which is a cool groover with a nice easy bossa groove, and cool Italian keyboards.

The soundtrack to Una Questione D'Onore is more of a period soundtrack, with some ethnic themes, incidental music, and other more typical soundtrack orchestrations. Between the 2 soundtracks, the CD's got a total of 29 cuts, with very nice remastering, and some notes on the original release.

Over six hours of music — including 37 previously unreleased tracks — and a great page book of rare photos! Rare TV apperances, mostly from the 7 0s — with Barbosa singing many tracks in "pout-pourri" style! A rare later session from Brazilian songwriter Joao De Barro — composer of Carnaval classics in earlier years, here performing some of his greatest hits himself! The session's got a traditional samba groove overall, and Joao's aged vocals make for a warmth that really brings a new spirit to the tunes.

A rare John Barry sci fi soundtrack — presented here on an Italian issue, with a nice sexy cover! LP, Vinyl record album Cover has some light wear. An excellent collection of Joe Bataan's most soulful work for Fania records — the sort of brown-eyed classics that broke him out of the Latin ghetto, into the dreamy world of east coast indie soul! Joe's unique origins gave him a wonderful take on a soulful vocal — inflecting it with personal hardship, open emotions, and a willingness to reach out that was rare for even the best soul singers at the time.

The tunes on the set are done in a mode that rivals the best harmony groups and sweet soul artists of the time — but there's also some occasional Latin touches that make them sound all the more unique! The originals have some incredible lyrics by Joe, and even the covers are completely transformed by his wonderful approach to the work.

One of the most compelling albums we've heard from the African scene of the 70s — a rare set from a Soweto group, and one that's got a heavy dose of spiritual jazz in the mix! The album almost feels more like the kind of set you'd hear by a Paris group, extrapolating African sounds in the post-colonial era — or an American group, inspired by roots from the homeland — and the group sports some especially great work on tenor, played by Themba Koyana, a player we've never heard before!

Rhythms are great, with lots of percussion, and some nice funky undercurrents at times — and other instrumentation includes organ, which often works well with the echoey production.

The album does have some occasional vocals, but the main focus is instrumental, which is very jazzy too — and titles include "Itume Leng", "Anishilabi", "Lishonile", and "Emampondweni". LP, Vinyl record album Limited repress! An amazing treasure for fans of the Beach Boys during their highest moment of genius — a huge batch of unreleased tracks from their important year of — plus the rare stereo mix of Wild Honey! We love the Wild Honey album — a back-to-basics album of sorts — shorter, catchier songs recorded by the group after the collapse of Smile — but a record that still has some really wonderful moments overall — and which shows that The Beach Boys would never be the same after Pet Sounds!

There's a mix of older rock themes and new adult ones here — sung by a group who's really growing into their emotions, and approaching things from new directions than in the past. The 2CD set features 20 more amazing tracks from the sessions for the record — all very cool alternate songs or in progress compositions — of the sort that you've heard in the Smile or Pet Sounds collections — really showing Brian Wilson's genius in the studio.

Plus, there's also 10 more songs from the Smiley Smile sessions — which are equally wonderful too — never issued before!

Then, there's a full unissued live album — Lei'd In Hawaii - with a total of 13 tracks — then 5 more live tracks from Hawaii in , and another 5 more unreleased tracks from an east coast tour late in the year!

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