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Wood, AuD, Steven R. We had the rare opportunity to conduct a cluster-randomized controlled trial to observe the long-term year effects of a well-designed hearing conservation intervention for rural high school students.

In —, 34 rural Wisconsin schools were recruited and 17 were assigned randomly to receive a comprehensive, 3-year, hearing conservation intervention. In —, extensive efforts were made to find and contact all students who completed the original trial.

Participants in the year follow-up study completed an exposure history questionnaire and a clinical audiometric examination. Rates of NIHL and use of hearing protection were compared. Among participants with exposure to agricultural noise, the intervention group reported significantly greater use of hearing protection compared with the control group The intervention group also reported significantly greater use of hearing protection for shooting guns There was no significant difference between groups with respect to objective measures of NIHL.

This novel trial provides objective evidence that a comprehensive educational intervention by itself may be of limited effectiveness in preventing NIHL in a young rural population. Lee PhDb pages Available online: The objective of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and cost of nonfatal farm youth injury in the United States for the period — The authors used — Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey data to estimate the annual incidence of farm youth nonfatal injury.

The annual number of nonfatal injuries to youth ages 0—19 on farms in — was 26, Lee PhD, Susan S. In the US launched a National Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative, guided by Downstream Casino Joplin Missouri Coupons For Bed action plan generated by a member multidisciplinary committee. A major update to the plan was released following the Summit on Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. These goals and strategies account for trends in childhood agricultural injuries, changes Silversands Slots Plus Casino Play For Fun agricultural production and the demographics of its workforce, effectiveness of interventions, and the increasing use of social media, marketing and social networking.

Primary funding for this project was provided by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSHwhich continues to serve as the lead federal agency for the national initiative. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. Rollover protective structures ROPS are an effective engineering control known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, the leading cause of occupational fatalities for farmers and farm workers in the U.

However, the use of ROPS is known to vary greatly from farm to farm. A national sample of 11, farm operators from the Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture OISPA survey was used to assess the association between the prevalence of ROPS and ten farm operator and farm demographic variables using logistic regression. All ten variables were found to have significant associations with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the univariate logistic regressions.

For the multivariate model, all variables except for the sex of the farm operator remained significant. Farms with less than three adult injuries, no hired workers, less than acres in size, a Midwest location, and a primary farm type of tobacco, fruit and nuts, dairy, or poultry and eggs all had adjusted odds ratios of 2 or greater. Increasing the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors is essential for reducing the leading cause of death on farms, tractor overturns.

Economic factors play a major role in the prevalence and distribution of non-ROPS tractors on farms. The identified associations can be used to effectively target areas of the U.

Volume 14, Issue 2, Special Issue: Public Health and the Agricultural—Rural Ecosystem. Cole EdD, Robert H. Donovan MPH pages Available online: Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data identify six states within or near the Appalachian mountain range that have the highest rates of agricultural tractor overturn deaths within the United States.

Demographic and economic data that characterize farms in these six states were compiled from U. Regional geological and geographic data were examined to identify topographic features within the six states.

In combination, these data suggest that a majority of farms in these states are small acreage livestock operations, located on terrain with steep slopes, with annual value of sales days per year.

Variations in these variables across the six states are examined as compared to the pooled values for all six states, and as compared to the pooled values for all U. Surveillance methods for identifying, targeting, and implementing ROPS-promotion efforts within these states are described. Evaluation of a Farm Safety Day Program: Safety education Farm safety day programs are attended each year by thousands of children in rural communities. This evaluation of a national farm safety day program assessed changes in knowledge and reported behaviors among safety day participants, aged 8 to 13 years, and a comparison group of children who did not attend a safety day.

The outcome evaluation involved a quasi-experimental design with participants and non-participants, measured with a pre-test, three-month telephone follow-up, and one-year telephone follow-up Silversands Slots Plus Casino Play For Fun.

The study included children from a sample of 28 safety days administered throughout North America and non-participants recruited from the same or nearby communities. The survey instruments measured participants knowledge of safety hazards, knowledge of appropriate safety behaviors, and current practices with regard to safety behaviors.

While both participants and non-participants showed improved safety knowledge and safe behavior scores over time, there were significantly greater increases in knowledge and behaviors for the safety day participants than for the non-participants. Improvements occurred for all age levels and were sustained through the one-year follow-up assessment.

This study contributes to the body of evidence that such safety programs can have a long-term effect on the knowledge and safe practices of children who attend them.

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Who Learns the Most? Farm Safety 4 Just Kids uses daylong community-based farm safety day camps as a primary method to instruct children about the hazards in farm environments.

Data collection focused on three high-risk farm exposures: The sample consisted of 1, children, ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. The results were encouraging: Overall, girls demonstrated greater knowledge than boys on both the pre- and post-tests.

Based on these findings, farm safety day camps appear to improve the knowledge of children about the injury risks associated with the farm environment. Refinements to the camp structure may foster greater knowledge gain of children attending the camps. While education of children about farm safety is not the sole answer to decreasing injury, it is a key component that should not be discounted.

Volume 15, Issue 2, Special Issue: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. The primary outcome variable was occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past year. Main explanatory variables of interest included snoring, gasping, snorting, or cessation of breathing while asleep; trouble sleeping; consumption of sleep medications; trouble staying awake during daytime; and sleep quality.

Simple logistic regressions established bivariate associations between explanatory and outcome variables. Explanatory variables significantly associated with the outcome in the bivariate analyses were used to fit a multivariable logistic regression model. These results show that sleep problems were associated with injury in this sample of older farmers.

Future studies are necessary to screen and diagnose older farmers with obstructive sleep apnea OSA to empirically determine the effect of this sleep disorder on injury.

Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed.

On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for Play Vegas Casino Style Slot Machines Online estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement.

No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch Silversands Slots Plus Casino Play For Fun. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India.

Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch pin engineering standard that would reflect current agricultural applications and practices and that would be promoted to both original equipment manufacturers and manufacturers and suppliers of replacement hitch pins. The standard should address the design of composite pins, heat treating, surface hardening, loading capacity and labeling of such, incorporation of unintentional disengagement prevention devices, indicators of the need for replacement due to wear, and safety information that should be included in operator instructions.

ASABE is the most appropriate organization to develop such a standard. It was also concluded that agricultural safety and health programs and professionals need to raise the awareness of farmers concerning the appropriate selection and use of agricultural hitch pins, including the need to replace non-standard pins with pins less likely to fail or disengage during use, the need to replace hitch pins with indications of potential failure, and the importance of using appropriate safety chains, especially during transport of equipment behind tractors and trucks on public roads.

The Social Marketing of Safety Behaviors: Earle-Richardson, and John J. American Journal of Public Health: We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures. From towe conducted a quasi—randomized controlled trial with farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations.

These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion. A fourth region served as a control. The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall. In addition, post-intervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors.

Our results showed that a social marketing approach financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were Silversands Slots Plus Casino Play For Fun good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors.

Limitations in fields of vision for simulated young farm tractor operators. Farm tractors account for the majority of deaths and injuries among youths working on North American farms. However, very little is known about visual limitations of young tractor operators compared to adult operators. The main purpose of this study was to quantify limitations in fields of vision of children with different anthropometry. The study was based on assessment of 42 farm tractors in popular use in the USA.

The results showed that youth operators typically had diminished fields of vision compared to the average adult operator. This has serious implications in terms of risks for runovers, rollovers and collisions. Study findings may help illuminate the development of policies and guidelines in tractor-related jobs for children. Ability of youth operators to reach farm tractor controls. Farm tractor work is commonly assigned to young people on North American farms, where tractors account for the majority of deaths and major portions of non-fatal trauma to working youths.

However, little is known about the potential mismatch between the anthropometric and physical characteristics of children and tractor characteristics.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of children of varying ages and percentiles to reach major controls on 45 tractors in common use in the US.

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Once the transfer has been verified, your casino player account will be credited immediately. Need Silver Sands bank details? The results were encouraging: Overall, girls demonstrated greater knowledge than boys on both the pre- and post-tests. Based on these findings, farm safety day camps appear to improve the knowledge of children about the injury risks associated with the farm environment.

Refinements to the camp structure may foster greater knowledge gain of children attending the camps. While education of children about farm safety is not the sole answer to decreasing injury, it is a key component that should not be discounted. Volume 15, Issue 2, Special Issue: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina.

The primary outcome variable was occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past year. Main explanatory variables of interest included snoring, gasping, snorting, or cessation of breathing while asleep; trouble sleeping; consumption of sleep medications; trouble staying awake during daytime; and sleep quality. Simple logistic regressions established bivariate associations between explanatory and outcome variables.

Explanatory variables significantly associated with the outcome in the bivariate analyses were used to fit a multivariable logistic regression model. These results show that sleep problems were associated with injury in this sample of older farmers.

Future studies are necessary to screen and diagnose older farmers with obstructive sleep apnea OSA to empirically determine the effect of this sleep disorder on injury. Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury.

An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use.

Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement.

No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India.

Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch pin engineering standard that would reflect current agricultural applications and practices and that would be promoted to both original equipment manufacturers and manufacturers and suppliers of replacement hitch pins.

The standard should address the design of composite pins, heat treating, surface hardening, loading capacity and labeling of such, incorporation of unintentional disengagement prevention devices, indicators of the need for replacement due to wear, and safety information that should be included in operator instructions. ASABE is the most appropriate organization to develop such a standard. It was also concluded that agricultural safety and health programs and professionals need to raise the awareness of farmers concerning the appropriate selection and use of agricultural hitch pins, including the need to replace non-standard pins with pins less likely to fail or disengage during use, the need to replace hitch pins with indications of potential failure, and the importance of using appropriate safety chains, especially during transport of equipment behind tractors and trucks on public roads.

The Social Marketing of Safety Behaviors: Earle-Richardson, and John J. American Journal of Public Health: We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures.

From to , we conducted a quasi—randomized controlled trial with farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations. These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion.

A fourth region served as a control. The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall. In addition, post-intervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors.

Our results showed that a social marketing approach financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were fairly good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors.

Limitations in fields of vision for simulated young farm tractor operators. Farm tractors account for the majority of deaths and injuries among youths working on North American farms. However, very little is known about visual limitations of young tractor operators compared to adult operators. The main purpose of this study was to quantify limitations in fields of vision of children with different anthropometry.

The study was based on assessment of 42 farm tractors in popular use in the USA. The results showed that youth operators typically had diminished fields of vision compared to the average adult operator. This has serious implications in terms of risks for runovers, rollovers and collisions. Study findings may help illuminate the development of policies and guidelines in tractor-related jobs for children. Ability of youth operators to reach farm tractor controls. Farm tractor work is commonly assigned to young people on North American farms, where tractors account for the majority of deaths and major portions of non-fatal trauma to working youths.

However, little is known about the potential mismatch between the anthropometric and physical characteristics of children and tractor characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of children of varying ages and percentiles to reach major controls on 45 tractors in common use in the US. The main study finding was that many tractor controls, especially those that are hand-operated, may not be effectively reached by the majority of youth operators aged 12 to 16 years.

The study raises further serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms and calls for reconsideration of age guidelines for the assignment of children to tractor work on farms. This study provides novel ergonomic evidence about the ability of children to reach controls inside agricultural tractor cabins. The approach could be applied in similar situations where youths may operate other vehicles or machines.

Study findings support the establishment and refinement of policies and guidelines related to youth tractor operation. Forces required to operate controls on farm tractors: Implications for young operators.

Farm tractors account for the majority of fatal injuries to adolescents working in agriculture and therefore remain a leading occupational priority. The question of whether these injuries occur because adolescents are assigned tractor jobs beyond their physical capabilities has not been answered. The purpose of this study was to estimate the activation forces required to operate controls on 40 tractors in common use in the US and compare them with existing estimates of physical strength for children of varying ages and with recommended ergonomic force limits for repeatedly engaging controls.

Activation forces for steering, brakes and clutch were measured on each tractor. The main study finding was that the activation forces required to operate tractors typically exceeded the physical abilities of most children aged 13 to 17 years.

This raises serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms. This approach could be used in similar situations where adolescents may operate vehicles e.

Study findings potentially inform the establishment of occupational policies surrounding tractor operation by young people. Chatterjee MDcb, Sara A. Quandt PhDdb, Jennifer W. Depression and sleepiness are both risk factors for occupational accidents and unintentional injury. Relatively little is known about the experiences of these risk factors in the immigrant Latino farmworker population.

This analysis uses prospective panel data from a sample of Latino farmworkers in eastern North Carolina that were collected at monthly intervals during the agricultural season to 1 describe depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness among immigrant Latino farmworkers across the agricultural season; 2 delineate associations of depressive symptoms with sleepiness across time; and 3 determine whether depressive symptoms precede sleepiness, or if sleepiness precedes depressive symptoms.

Elevated depressive symptoms were more common among farmworkers living in barracks, and less common among those living in trailers.

Sleepiness was more common among women than men. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms contributed to sleepiness, or that sleepiness contributed to depressive symptoms. The pattern of results suggests that a substantial proportion of Latino farmworkers experience levels of depressive symptoms or sleepiness that places them at risk for occupational accident or unintentional injury.

The results also suggest that depressive symptoms and sleepiness do not cause each other; rather, the association of depressive symptoms with sleepiness hints at the possibility of a common physiologic mechanism such as circadian disruption. Sandberg PhDa, Joseph G. Grzywacz PhD, Jennifer W. Talton MS, Sara A. Journal of Agromedicine, Volume 17, Issue 1, pages I feel uplifted and soothed at the same time by the power of sounds they produce and the love they share.

They shine their light brightly to inspire true healing, wellness, and joy in individuals and the world. I experienced times of total bliss and sadness but all worth it. Made for a wonderful journey.

Promptness — as we are creating sacred space and it is distracting when people arrive late so we request that you make every effort to arrive by 7: If you do come in after we have begun, please enter quietly and mindfully.

Children — we highly value diversity and welcome children who can hold a sacred space. Please be aware that our sound baths are a time of quiet inner reflection and stillness and we like this to be honored without any unnecessary distractions. Lumeria Maui Grounds — please be aware that we are guests on the property. You are welcome to enjoy and make dinner or lunch reservations in the restaurant Please also note that the Lumeria Spa is reserved for their guests only!

As we end our events during their quiet hours they ask that we leave directly afterwards and not doddle or roam the grounds. Guided by the energies of astrology, the cycles of nature as well as planetary and current issues these innovative visionary mystics bring decades of experience as professional performers, healers and agents of social change.

Heather has been engaged in sound healing as a shamanic vocal rebirthing practice for 17 years and has traveled and trained with renown international teachers including Karinia Sheld, Tom Kenyan, Mantak Chia, Jonathan Goldberg and Nara Boone. She plays hz crystal singing bowls which are tuned to the solfeggio scale and other sound healing instruments including Tibetan bowls, chimes, gongs and drums.

She is also an ordained minister through the Church of the Essenes and an ordained High Priestess through the Temple of Isis In Heather founded the Black Swan Temple and subsequently relocated in December to Maui with her beloved Donny to cultivate their living eco temple complete with a food forest as a model of sustainability. They offer prayerformances, retreats, workshops, classes and Mystery School Trainings based on the Sevenfold Path of Peace philosophy!

He has provided musical support for spiritual events, ceremonies, dances and Tantric pujas for the last twenty five years and has worked with Sophia and other spiritual recording artist as a producer and musician to create over Spiritual and New age albums.

He is highly versed in Compassionate Communication and is constantly integrating it into his Tantric practice. For more information visit www. Sound has in and of itself an inherent transformative power. We also know that intention brings power to our creative imaginings.

When we combine sound with intention we describe the powerful and growing in popularity modality of sound healing. It is fast becoming recognized as having scientific efficacy and sound healing is today what yoga was to our evolutionary development in the West 20 years ago! Sound healing is the application of intentionally using sound to create an environment which is conducive for healing on physical, emotional, mental or spiritual levels of our being.

Frequency, vibration and intention can help the brain organize at a more complex level by taking what it can handle emotionally and intellectually and enhancing it. The intentional use of sound adds power to the conduit whether it is generated from conscious chanting, guided music, crystal singing bowls, Tibetan bowls, temple bells, gongs, chimes, tuning forks, intuitive vocal toning, instruments, or recorded sounds.

Sound healing has been proven effective in addressing stress related imbalances such as chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, insomnia, psorisis, as well as in enhancing learning, intuition, the imagination and boosting the immune system.

When used in ceremony and ritual it amplifies the transformational power of the prayers and intentions for all involved. Heather Salmon is an inspiring healer, planetary priestess, cultural creative, agent of change and recording artist.

She has been a practicing sound and energy healer for over 20 years.

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No one turned away. There are also couches that are ideal for people who need more support. As your body temperatures can drop when experiencing relaxation we recommended that you bring an extra shawl or blanket to cover yourself.

We want you to stay warm and comfortable! A pillow for your head or under your knees, a covering for your eyes and a water bottle are additional items that can support your comfort. I believe Sacred Sound to be at the foundation of creating higher success. And the potent qualities of sacred sound is especially powerful when led by two healing artists like Heather and Donny.

The transformative environment they create allows us to transcend the boundaries of limited thoughts and move into the place where our creative imaginings can take flight! Heather and Donny create such a powerful sacred space for healing and transformation to take place. I always travel higher and stretch wider than I can even imagine.

They are extraordinary together. The work they do is out of this world. It was so tranquil and inspiring. I consider myself a professional Sound Healer and Meditation Facilitator. The two of you are truly anointed.

This is the experience that Heather and Donny create during their sound healing ceremonies. They always offer a safe and sacred space to connect deeply with mind, body, heart, and soul. I feel uplifted and soothed at the same time by the power of sounds they produce and the love they share. They shine their light brightly to inspire true healing, wellness, and joy in individuals and the world. I experienced times of total bliss and sadness but all worth it.

Made for a wonderful journey. Promptness — as we are creating sacred space and it is distracting when people arrive late so we request that you make every effort to arrive by 7: If you do come in after we have begun, please enter quietly and mindfully.

Children — we highly value diversity and welcome children who can hold a sacred space. Please be aware that our sound baths are a time of quiet inner reflection and stillness and we like this to be honored without any unnecessary distractions. Lumeria Maui Grounds — please be aware that we are guests on the property.

You are welcome to enjoy and make dinner or lunch reservations in the restaurant Please also note that the Lumeria Spa is reserved for their guests only! As we end our events during their quiet hours they ask that we leave directly afterwards and not doddle or roam the grounds.

Guided by the energies of astrology, the cycles of nature as well as planetary and current issues these innovative visionary mystics bring decades of experience as professional performers, healers and agents of social change.

Heather has been engaged in sound healing as a shamanic vocal rebirthing practice for 17 years and has traveled and trained with renown international teachers including Karinia Sheld, Tom Kenyan, Mantak Chia, Jonathan Goldberg and Nara Boone.

She plays hz crystal singing bowls which are tuned to the solfeggio scale and other sound healing instruments including Tibetan bowls, chimes, gongs and drums.

She is also an ordained minister through the Church of the Essenes and an ordained High Priestess through the Temple of Isis In Heather founded the Black Swan Temple and subsequently relocated in December to Maui with her beloved Donny to cultivate their living eco temple complete with a food forest as a model of sustainability.

They offer prayerformances, retreats, workshops, classes and Mystery School Trainings based on the Sevenfold Path of Peace philosophy! He has provided musical support for spiritual events, ceremonies, dances and Tantric pujas for the last twenty five years and has worked with Sophia and other spiritual recording artist as a producer and musician to create over Spiritual and New age albums.

He is highly versed in Compassionate Communication and is constantly integrating it into his Tantric practice. For more information visit www. Sound has in and of itself an inherent transformative power. We also know that intention brings power to our creative imaginings. When we combine sound with intention we describe the powerful and growing in popularity modality of sound healing. It is fast becoming recognized as having scientific efficacy and sound healing is today what yoga was to our evolutionary development in the West 20 years ago!

Sound healing is the application of intentionally using sound to create an environment which is conducive for healing on physical, emotional, mental or spiritual levels of our being. Frequency, vibration and intention can help the brain organize at a more complex level by taking what it can handle emotionally and intellectually and enhancing it. The intentional use of sound adds power to the conduit whether it is generated from conscious chanting, guided music, crystal singing bowls, Tibetan bowls, temple bells, gongs, chimes, tuning forks, intuitive vocal toning, instruments, or recorded sounds.

Sound healing has been proven effective in addressing stress related imbalances such as chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, insomnia, psorisis, as well as in enhancing learning, intuition, the imagination and boosting the immune system.

When used in ceremony and ritual it amplifies the transformational power of the prayers and intentions for all involved. Heather Salmon is an inspiring healer, planetary priestess, cultural creative, agent of change and recording artist. Should you wish to purchase credits by means of internet bank transfers, please forward the proof of payment which your bank provides via fax on: Please ensure that the transfer reflects your Player ID username as the beneficiary reference.

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We had the rare opportunity to conduct a cluster-randomized controlled trial to observe the long-term year effects of a well-designed hearing conservation intervention for rural high school students. In —, 34 rural Wisconsin schools were recruited and 17 were assigned randomly to receive a comprehensive, 3-year, hearing conservation intervention.

In —, extensive efforts were made to find and contact all students who completed the original trial. Participants in the year follow-up study completed an exposure history questionnaire and a clinical audiometric examination. Rates of NIHL and use of hearing protection were compared.

Among participants with exposure to agricultural noise, the intervention group reported significantly greater use of hearing protection compared with the control group The intervention group also reported significantly greater use of hearing protection for shooting guns There was no significant difference between groups with respect to objective measures of NIHL.

This novel trial provides objective evidence that a comprehensive educational intervention by itself may be of limited effectiveness in preventing NIHL in a young rural population. Lee PhDb pages Available online: The objective of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and cost of nonfatal farm youth injury in the United States for the period — The authors used — Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey data to estimate the annual incidence of farm youth nonfatal injury.

The annual number of nonfatal injuries to youth ages 0—19 on farms in — was 26, Lee PhD, Susan S. In the US launched a National Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative, guided by an action plan generated by a member multidisciplinary committee. A major update to the plan was released following the Summit on Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. These goals and strategies account for trends in childhood agricultural injuries, changes in agricultural production and the demographics of its workforce, effectiveness of interventions, and the increasing use of social media, marketing and social networking.

Primary funding for this project was provided by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH , which continues to serve as the lead federal agency for the national initiative.

Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. Rollover protective structures ROPS are an effective engineering control known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, the leading cause of occupational fatalities for farmers and farm workers in the U. However, the use of ROPS is known to vary greatly from farm to farm. A national sample of 11, farm operators from the Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture OISPA survey was used to assess the association between the prevalence of ROPS and ten farm operator and farm demographic variables using logistic regression.

All ten variables were found to have significant associations with the prevalence of non-ROPS tractors on farms in the univariate logistic regressions.

For the multivariate model, all variables except for the sex of the farm operator remained significant. Farms with less than three adult injuries, no hired workers, less than acres in size, a Midwest location, and a primary farm type of tobacco, fruit and nuts, dairy, or poultry and eggs all had adjusted odds ratios of 2 or greater.

Increasing the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors is essential for reducing the leading cause of death on farms, tractor overturns. Economic factors play a major role in the prevalence and distribution of non-ROPS tractors on farms. The identified associations can be used to effectively target areas of the U. Volume 14, Issue 2, Special Issue: Public Health and the Agricultural—Rural Ecosystem.

Cole EdD, Robert H. Donovan MPH pages Available online: Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data identify six states within or near the Appalachian mountain range that have the highest rates of agricultural tractor overturn deaths within the United States. Demographic and economic data that characterize farms in these six states were compiled from U.

Regional geological and geographic data were examined to identify topographic features within the six states. In combination, these data suggest that a majority of farms in these states are small acreage livestock operations, located on terrain with steep slopes, with annual value of sales days per year.

Variations in these variables across the six states are examined as compared to the pooled values for all six states, and as compared to the pooled values for all U. Surveillance methods for identifying, targeting, and implementing ROPS-promotion efforts within these states are described. Evaluation of a Farm Safety Day Program: Safety education Farm safety day programs are attended each year by thousands of children in rural communities.

This evaluation of a national farm safety day program assessed changes in knowledge and reported behaviors among safety day participants, aged 8 to 13 years, and a comparison group of children who did not attend a safety day. The outcome evaluation involved a quasi-experimental design with participants and non-participants, measured with a pre-test, three-month telephone follow-up, and one-year telephone follow-up survey.

The study included children from a sample of 28 safety days administered throughout North America and non-participants recruited from the same or nearby communities. The survey instruments measured participants knowledge of safety hazards, knowledge of appropriate safety behaviors, and current practices with regard to safety behaviors. While both participants and non-participants showed improved safety knowledge and safe behavior scores over time, there were significantly greater increases in knowledge and behaviors for the safety day participants than for the non-participants.

Improvements occurred for all age levels and were sustained through the one-year follow-up assessment. This study contributes to the body of evidence that such safety programs can have a long-term effect on the knowledge and safe practices of children who attend them.

Who Learns the Most? Farm Safety 4 Just Kids uses daylong community-based farm safety day camps as a primary method to instruct children about the hazards in farm environments. Data collection focused on three high-risk farm exposures: The sample consisted of 1, children, ranging from 8 to 12 years of age.

The results were encouraging: Overall, girls demonstrated greater knowledge than boys on both the pre- and post-tests. Based on these findings, farm safety day camps appear to improve the knowledge of children about the injury risks associated with the farm environment. Refinements to the camp structure may foster greater knowledge gain of children attending the camps. While education of children about farm safety is not the sole answer to decreasing injury, it is a key component that should not be discounted.

Volume 15, Issue 2, Special Issue: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. The primary outcome variable was occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past year. Main explanatory variables of interest included snoring, gasping, snorting, or cessation of breathing while asleep; trouble sleeping; consumption of sleep medications; trouble staying awake during daytime; and sleep quality.

Simple logistic regressions established bivariate associations between explanatory and outcome variables. Explanatory variables significantly associated with the outcome in the bivariate analyses were used to fit a multivariable logistic regression model. These results show that sleep problems were associated with injury in this sample of older farmers.

Future studies are necessary to screen and diagnose older farmers with obstructive sleep apnea OSA to empirically determine the effect of this sleep disorder on injury.

Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed.

On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins.

Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India.

Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch pin engineering standard that would reflect current agricultural applications and practices and that would be promoted to both original equipment manufacturers and manufacturers and suppliers of replacement hitch pins.

The standard should address the design of composite pins, heat treating, surface hardening, loading capacity and labeling of such, incorporation of unintentional disengagement prevention devices, indicators of the need for replacement due to wear, and safety information that should be included in operator instructions.

ASABE is the most appropriate organization to develop such a standard. It was also concluded that agricultural safety and health programs and professionals need to raise the awareness of farmers concerning the appropriate selection and use of agricultural hitch pins, including the need to replace non-standard pins with pins less likely to fail or disengage during use, the need to replace hitch pins with indications of potential failure, and the importance of using appropriate safety chains, especially during transport of equipment behind tractors and trucks on public roads.

The Social Marketing of Safety Behaviors: Earle-Richardson, and John J. American Journal of Public Health: We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures.

From to , we conducted a quasi—randomized controlled trial with farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations. These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion. A fourth region served as a control.

The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall. In addition, post-intervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors.

Our results showed that a social marketing approach financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were fairly good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors.

Limitations in fields of vision for simulated young farm tractor operators. Farm tractors account for the majority of deaths and injuries among youths working on North American farms. However, very little is known about visual limitations of young tractor operators compared to adult operators.

The main purpose of this study was to quantify limitations in fields of vision of children with different anthropometry. The study was based on assessment of 42 farm tractors in popular use in the USA. The results showed that youth operators typically had diminished fields of vision compared to the average adult operator. This has serious implications in terms of risks for runovers, rollovers and collisions.

Study findings may help illuminate the development of policies and guidelines in tractor-related jobs for children. Ability of youth operators to reach farm tractor controls. Farm tractor work is commonly assigned to young people on North American farms, where tractors account for the majority of deaths and major portions of non-fatal trauma to working youths.

However, little is known about the potential mismatch between the anthropometric and physical characteristics of children and tractor characteristics.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of children of varying ages and percentiles to reach major controls on 45 tractors in common use in the US.

The main study finding was that many tractor controls, especially those that are hand-operated, may not be effectively reached by the majority of youth operators aged 12 to 16 years. The study raises further serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms and calls for reconsideration of age guidelines for the assignment of children to tractor work on farms. This study provides novel ergonomic evidence about the ability of children to reach controls inside agricultural tractor cabins.

The approach could be applied in similar situations where youths may operate other vehicles or machines. Study findings support the establishment and refinement of policies and guidelines related to youth tractor operation.

Forces required to operate controls on farm tractors: Implications for young operators. Farm tractors account for the majority of fatal injuries to adolescents working in agriculture and therefore remain a leading occupational priority.

The question of whether these injuries occur because adolescents are assigned tractor jobs beyond their physical capabilities has not been answered. The purpose of this study was to estimate the activation forces required to operate controls on 40 tractors in common use in the US and compare them with existing estimates of physical strength for children of varying ages and with recommended ergonomic force limits for repeatedly engaging controls.

Activation forces for steering, brakes and clutch were measured on each tractor. The main study finding was that the activation forces required to operate tractors typically exceeded the physical abilities of most children aged 13 to 17 years. This raises serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms.

This approach could be used in similar situations where adolescents may operate vehicles e. Study findings potentially inform the establishment of occupational policies surrounding tractor operation by young people.

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Signifying both life and fertility, it was ingested by Royalty in ceremonial worship. Creating feelings of emotional intimacy and pleasure which facilitate healing and transformation.

Our Sacred Cacao is lovingly prepared with the finest organic ingredients and offered as cacao nuggets to be eaten. No one turned away. There are also couches that are ideal for people who need more support. As your body temperatures can drop when experiencing relaxation we recommended that you bring an extra shawl or blanket to cover yourself.

We want you to stay warm and comfortable! A pillow for your head or under your knees, a covering for your eyes and a water bottle are additional items that can support your comfort. I believe Sacred Sound to be at the foundation of creating higher success. And the potent qualities of sacred sound is especially powerful when led by two healing artists like Heather and Donny.

The transformative environment they create allows us to transcend the boundaries of limited thoughts and move into the place where our creative imaginings can take flight! Heather and Donny create such a powerful sacred space for healing and transformation to take place. I always travel higher and stretch wider than I can even imagine. They are extraordinary together. The work they do is out of this world. It was so tranquil and inspiring.

I consider myself a professional Sound Healer and Meditation Facilitator. The two of you are truly anointed. This is the experience that Heather and Donny create during their sound healing ceremonies. They always offer a safe and sacred space to connect deeply with mind, body, heart, and soul.

I feel uplifted and soothed at the same time by the power of sounds they produce and the love they share. They shine their light brightly to inspire true healing, wellness, and joy in individuals and the world. I experienced times of total bliss and sadness but all worth it. Made for a wonderful journey. Promptness — as we are creating sacred space and it is distracting when people arrive late so we request that you make every effort to arrive by 7: If you do come in after we have begun, please enter quietly and mindfully.

Children — we highly value diversity and welcome children who can hold a sacred space. Please be aware that our sound baths are a time of quiet inner reflection and stillness and we like this to be honored without any unnecessary distractions. Lumeria Maui Grounds — please be aware that we are guests on the property. You are welcome to enjoy and make dinner or lunch reservations in the restaurant Please also note that the Lumeria Spa is reserved for their guests only!

As we end our events during their quiet hours they ask that we leave directly afterwards and not doddle or roam the grounds. Data collection focused on three high-risk farm exposures: The sample consisted of 1, children, ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. The results were encouraging: Overall, girls demonstrated greater knowledge than boys on both the pre- and post-tests.

Based on these findings, farm safety day camps appear to improve the knowledge of children about the injury risks associated with the farm environment. Refinements to the camp structure may foster greater knowledge gain of children attending the camps. While education of children about farm safety is not the sole answer to decreasing injury, it is a key component that should not be discounted.

Volume 15, Issue 2, Special Issue: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. The primary outcome variable was occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past year. Main explanatory variables of interest included snoring, gasping, snorting, or cessation of breathing while asleep; trouble sleeping; consumption of sleep medications; trouble staying awake during daytime; and sleep quality.

Simple logistic regressions established bivariate associations between explanatory and outcome variables. Explanatory variables significantly associated with the outcome in the bivariate analyses were used to fit a multivariable logistic regression model. These results show that sleep problems were associated with injury in this sample of older farmers. Future studies are necessary to screen and diagnose older farmers with obstructive sleep apnea OSA to empirically determine the effect of this sleep disorder on injury.

Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use.

Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement.

No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.

It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch pin engineering standard that would reflect current agricultural applications and practices and that would be promoted to both original equipment manufacturers and manufacturers and suppliers of replacement hitch pins. The standard should address the design of composite pins, heat treating, surface hardening, loading capacity and labeling of such, incorporation of unintentional disengagement prevention devices, indicators of the need for replacement due to wear, and safety information that should be included in operator instructions.

ASABE is the most appropriate organization to develop such a standard. It was also concluded that agricultural safety and health programs and professionals need to raise the awareness of farmers concerning the appropriate selection and use of agricultural hitch pins, including the need to replace non-standard pins with pins less likely to fail or disengage during use, the need to replace hitch pins with indications of potential failure, and the importance of using appropriate safety chains, especially during transport of equipment behind tractors and trucks on public roads.

The Social Marketing of Safety Behaviors: Earle-Richardson, and John J. American Journal of Public Health: We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures. From to , we conducted a quasi—randomized controlled trial with farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations.

These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion. A fourth region served as a control. The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall.

In addition, post-intervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors.

Our results showed that a social marketing approach financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were fairly good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors. Limitations in fields of vision for simulated young farm tractor operators. Farm tractors account for the majority of deaths and injuries among youths working on North American farms.

However, very little is known about visual limitations of young tractor operators compared to adult operators. The main purpose of this study was to quantify limitations in fields of vision of children with different anthropometry. The study was based on assessment of 42 farm tractors in popular use in the USA. The results showed that youth operators typically had diminished fields of vision compared to the average adult operator. This has serious implications in terms of risks for runovers, rollovers and collisions.

Study findings may help illuminate the development of policies and guidelines in tractor-related jobs for children. Ability of youth operators to reach farm tractor controls. Farm tractor work is commonly assigned to young people on North American farms, where tractors account for the majority of deaths and major portions of non-fatal trauma to working youths.

However, little is known about the potential mismatch between the anthropometric and physical characteristics of children and tractor characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of children of varying ages and percentiles to reach major controls on 45 tractors in common use in the US. The main study finding was that many tractor controls, especially those that are hand-operated, may not be effectively reached by the majority of youth operators aged 12 to 16 years.

The study raises further serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms and calls for reconsideration of age guidelines for the assignment of children to tractor work on farms. This study provides novel ergonomic evidence about the ability of children to reach controls inside agricultural tractor cabins.

The approach could be applied in similar situations where youths may operate other vehicles or machines. Study findings support the establishment and refinement of policies and guidelines related to youth tractor operation. Forces required to operate controls on farm tractors: Implications for young operators.

Farm tractors account for the majority of fatal injuries to adolescents working in agriculture and therefore remain a leading occupational priority. The question of whether these injuries occur because adolescents are assigned tractor jobs beyond their physical capabilities has not been answered. The purpose of this study was to estimate the activation forces required to operate controls on 40 tractors in common use in the US and compare them with existing estimates of physical strength for children of varying ages and with recommended ergonomic force limits for repeatedly engaging controls.

Activation forces for steering, brakes and clutch were measured on each tractor. The main study finding was that the activation forces required to operate tractors typically exceeded the physical abilities of most children aged 13 to 17 years. This raises serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms.

This approach could be used in similar situations where adolescents may operate vehicles e. Study findings potentially inform the establishment of occupational policies surrounding tractor operation by young people.

Chatterjee MDcb, Sara A. Quandt PhDdb, Jennifer W. Depression and sleepiness are both risk factors for occupational accidents and unintentional injury. Relatively little is known about the experiences of these risk factors in the immigrant Latino farmworker population. This analysis uses prospective panel data from a sample of Latino farmworkers in eastern North Carolina that were collected at monthly intervals during the agricultural season to 1 describe depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness among immigrant Latino farmworkers across the agricultural season; 2 delineate associations of depressive symptoms with sleepiness across time; and 3 determine whether depressive symptoms precede sleepiness, or if sleepiness precedes depressive symptoms.

Elevated depressive symptoms were more common among farmworkers living in barracks, and less common among those living in trailers. Sleepiness was more common among women than men.

There was no evidence that depressive symptoms contributed to sleepiness, or that sleepiness contributed to depressive symptoms. The pattern of results suggests that a substantial proportion of Latino farmworkers experience levels of depressive symptoms or sleepiness that places them at risk for occupational accident or unintentional injury.

The results also suggest that depressive symptoms and sleepiness do not cause each other; rather, the association of depressive symptoms with sleepiness hints at the possibility of a common physiologic mechanism such as circadian disruption. Sandberg PhDa, Joseph G. Grzywacz PhD, Jennifer W. Sliver Sands Mobile Casino supports a range of devices. See below for a list of compatible phones and mobile devices.

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